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Oxalates in urine, what does this mean? Causes and role of oxalates in the body

Indicators of urine analysis are one of the diagnostic criteria for the identification of pathological processes in the body. When deciphering the analysis, they take into account not only the structural characteristics of urine, the presence of pus or bacteria in it, but also the presence and nature of sedimentary impurities. Special attention is paid to the presence of oxalate salts in the urine.

Content

Oxalate salts and their effects on the body

So, what are “oxalates” and what is their role in the body? (If you are not interested, go straight to the "reasons").

The structure of oxalates is insoluble and solid, in the form of colorless crystals, in its essence - oxalate salts. In the natural environment in large quantities contained in the composition of ethandioic (oxalic) acid, present in the acidic structure of many plants (rhubarb, buckwheat, sorrel and many others).

Oxalates in the urine

“Square stars” are oxalate salts in the analysis, photo

A fair amount of them is found even in tea leaves. Absorbing from products up to about 5% of oxalates, the body produces a greater amount (almost 95%) of the urine from the body - from 20 to 40 mg per day, which corresponds to the rate of oxalates in the urine. The ability of a light compound of oxalic acid with calcium, with different processes, determines its beneficial and harmful properties.

The beneficial properties of calcium oxalates are due to their ingestion into the body only in an organic form. For example, if you drink pure natural juice from vegetables or fruits with a large macroconcentration of ethanedioic acid, its useful minerals are completely absorbed and subsequently, without harm, will be excreted by the body.

It is in combination with calcium, in the organic state, salts of oxalic acids play a large supporting role in the absorption of calcium minerals by the gastrointestinal system and stimulation of peristalsis.

But, in the course of processing, the process of interaction with the inorganic form of oxalic (ethanedioic) acid with salts of calcium minerals occurs, which immediately destroys their entire value.

This can lead to calcium deficiency and pathological damage to bone structures. A large concentration of inorganic calcium oxalate, not absorbed by the body can fall as crystalline sediments in various organs of the body.

If this process occurs in the gastrointestinal tract system, it is fraught with damage to the intestinal mucosa, but more serious violations cause sediment of oxalates in the kidney structures, forming oxalate stones.

The crystalline structure of calculi easily damages the epithelial tubules of the kidneys, causing bleeding. Their sizes can be the most diverse and various configurations - coral, spinous, or with various growths.

– основной своеобразный маркер нарушений обменных процессов или развития определенных заболеваний в организме. Oxalate is the main peculiar marker of metabolic disorders or the development of certain diseases in the body. If sedation of oxalate occurs in the urine, this means that undesirable reactions occur in the body.

Oxalate in the urine - what does it mean?

Oxalate in the urine - what does it mean

Oxalates in the urine in adults and children are excreted by the kidneys. These salts are ingested with the use of large amounts of plant products or due to various biochemical processes.

In a small amount, they are constantly present in the urine, which is a normal condition and does not require treatment, since they are a natural component of metabolites and are released in urine in a smaller or larger quantity.

In the sediment oxalates appear:

  1. With bacterial kidney damage;
  2. In case of poisoning with technical liquids (antifreeze, for example);
  3. Diabetes and persistent oxaluria (primary and secondary genesis).

The primary manifestation of hyperoxaluria is due to a rare genetic disease characterized by disturbances in the exchange of aldehyde acids (mainly glyoxalic, often present in unripe vegetables and fruits) and amino acids synthesized by the liver (glycine).

Pathological reactions can manifest themselves:

  • interstitial nephritis;
  • nephrocalcinosis;
  • calculi in the urinary system;
  • impaired renal function;
  • severe intoxication due to uremia.

Secondary hyperoxaluria is a consequence of a diet containing a large amount of inorganic oxalic acids. The result of this nutrition is displayed in the analysis of a large number of oxalates in the urine.

Hyperoxaluria is manifested by symptoms of metabolic disorders, the presence of red blood cells, leukocytes and proteins, after the daily collection of urine.

Regardless of the causes, the effects of oxaluria can manifest themselves:

  • in the form of macro / microhematuria;
  • bouts of renal colic;
  • salt deposits in the tissues of various organs.

At the same time accompanied by increased fatigue, frequent urination and tenderness in the abdomen. Patients with a history of which have signs of nephrolithiasis (crystalline neoplasms) or infectious-inflammatory processes in the renal structures (pyelonephritis) are susceptible to the disease.

The provoking factors of oxalate in the urine are:

  1. Intestinal diseases and surgical interventions;
  2. Chronic diseases affecting the mucous membrane of the large intestine;
  3. Chronic inflammatory process in the entire digestive tract system;
  4. Vitamin imbalance in the body.

A negative factor of oxalates is their relationship with fungal infections (Candida), manifested by oxalate compounds in the pulmonary structure.

In general, with proper nutrition and a balanced diet, the presence of oxalate crystals in the urine is a completely harmless phenomenon. With good health, the crystals of oxalic acid salts are destroyed by bacteria in the intestines, or are eliminated from the body during defecation.

Causes of oxalate in the urine in children

Today, metabolic disorders in children are diagnosed everywhere and the appearance of oxalic acid salts in urine is not uncommon. Manifestations of this pathology are observed even in the urine of newborns, due to genetic disorders in the metabolism of aldehyde acids and amino acids due to oxalosis (primary hyperoxaluria).

With the progression of the disease, there are processes of cystolithiasis (stones in the bladder), nephrocalcinosis, CRF, congestive blood processes in the dilated subcutaneous capillaries, or pathological fragility of the bones.

In addition, the presence of oxalates in the urine of a child means the presence of intestinal pathologies:

  • malabsorption in the small intestine (impaired absorption);
  • impaired absorption of cholic acid bile from the gastrointestinal tract;
  • the presence of congenital short intestine, or its partial atresia (fusion).

Increased salt content in older children may appear as early as age five and older.

This is facilitated by a rather extensive ration of the child, including products rich in oxalic acid salts - first courses on steep broths and cold bole on gelatin, cottage cheese casseroles, green apples, sour varieties, chocolates and cocoa, beet and radish salads, parsley and spinach , jelly and juice from currants.

If oxalates in the urine of a child are noted regularly, this is a sure signal of a renal failure. Urine at the same time, can depart in smaller quantities and will be saturated color. With oxalate nephropathy, children are normally developed, but these children are characterized by:

  • headaches and allergic reactions;
  • large weight gain with fat deposits;
  • neurocircular dysfunction ( VVD );
  • manifestations of arterial hypotension.

As a rule, at puberty, all these symptoms become acute, the disease progresses rapidly, which can lead to the development of pyelonephritis and urolithiasis.

Treatment and diet with oxalate in the urine

urinary oxalate diet

Treatment with oxaluria involves four stages:

  1. Drug treatment;
  2. Strict diet;
  3. Drinking regime;
  4. Complete changes in past habits.

At the first stage, the treatment of pathological processes that provoke oxaluria is carried out. To prevent complications, drugs are prescribed at elevated concentrations of oxalate salts:

  • Containing magnesium oxide and vitamins "B6" - "Magurlit", "Asparkam", "Magnelis", "Magnesium +", "Magne-B6".
  • Prevention of the formation of calculus is carried out by prescription of drugs - “Uronefron”, “Prolit”, “Pyridoxine”, “Xidiphon”, “Citric Acid”.
  • If necessary - diuretics.

In the formation of kidney stones, drug therapy is not always effective either for fragmentation or for dissolution. Various methods of surgical intervention are used to remove stones. With small formations cope correction diet.

In the diet minimizes the consumption of carbohydrates and salt. Excluded products based on chemical additives containing large amounts of cholesterol and fat. A diet with oxalate in the urine recommends nutrition based on products and techniques:

  • Milk diet, eating rye, gray and white bread.
  • Low-salted herring is allowed in small quantities.
  • From the first courses - vegetarian soups and borscht without zazharki.
  • In the egg you can eat only protein.
  • From meat and fish, only lean varieties.
  • Main dishes may consist of cereals and pasta.
  • Fruits and vegetables, only raw or baked.
  • Allowed - non-acidic varieties of berries, fermented cabbage, juices, compotes and jelly.

Drinking regime should be agreed with the doctor, it should be abundant - at least 2 - 3 liters per day. When general recommendations are assigned mineral waters such as Smirnovskaya, Berezovskaya, Essentuki under a certain number, or Naftusi.

Of the juices, pumpkin, cucumber and squash juices are useful. Their action is due to good alkalinization of urine, but they must be taken in combination with drugs (antihypoxants) that improve oxygen utilization (prescribed by a doctor).

It is very effective in the removal of oxalic acid salts in renal pathologies, cucumber juice. It is an excellent means of intensive removal of urine from the body and has the property of restoring its structure. Potassium contained in cucumber contributes to the intensive flushing of urine from the body during polyuria.

  • To saturate the body with vitamins, vitamin preparations are recommended for consumption - “Fitin” or “Riboflavin”, berries - sea buckthorn, raspberry, black currant and non-acidic apples.

A balanced diet with oxalate with urine is a mandatory step in treatment. Its principle is due to a decrease in the concentration of oxalic acid salts in the body, while not violating the flow of necessary elements in sufficient quantities.

Compliance with all the rules of phased treatment contributes to the effective restoration of the balance of salts in the body.

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