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Complete blood count in adults, transcript and rate in the table
The blood performs the transport function - it supplies the cells with oxygen and other necessary substances, takes carbon dioxide and metabolic products. It includes plasma and shaped elements, the ratio and number of which can tell a lot about the state of health.
Below we describe in detail the indications and features of the general blood test - a table of norms in adults, a transcript of the results and values of deviations upward or downward.
What is the analysis for?
General clinical blood research is carried out to identify most of the pathologies of an infectious, inflammatory, malignant nature.
With its help, the effectiveness of treatment is evaluated, it is an obligatory part of the examination when a patient is admitted to the hospital and during a routine examination.
A general blood test is needed to determine the number of red blood cells, the concentration of hemoglobin in them and the sedimentation rate, the number and composition of leukocytes and platelets, the ratio of the number of cellular and liquid components.
These indicators can tell a lot about the condition of the body and help diagnose pathology in the early stages.
- Показания к назначению общего анализа крови 3 Indications for general blood count.
- Как проводят общий анализ крови у взрослых? 4 How to perform a complete blood count in adults?
Decoding and rate of general blood test in adults
In the general clinical analysis of blood, the level of the following elements is determined:
- erythrocytes and their average volume;
- the average number and percentage of hemoglobin in red blood cells;
- erythrocyte anisocytosis;
- platelets and their average volume;
The leukocyte formula is written in detail, including values for the six types of white blood cells: eosinophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, basophils, stab and segmented neutrophils.
Table 1. The rate of the result of general clinical blood tests
|12 / л ) Erythrocytes ( × 10 12 / l )||RBC||3.7-4.7||4-5,1|
|3 ) The average volume of red blood cells (fl or micron 3 )||MCV||81-99||80-94|
|Hemoglobin (g / l)||Hgb||120-140||130-160|
|Average erythrocyte hemoglobin level (pg)||MCH||27-31|
|9 / л) Platelets ( × 10 9 / l)||Plt||180-320|
|Average erythrocyte hemoglobin concentration (%)||Mchc||33-37|
|9 / л) Leukocytes ( × 10 9 / l)||WBC||4-9|
|Average 3 ) platelet volume (fl or µm 3 )||MPV||7-11|
|Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mm / h)||ESR||2-10||2-15|
|Erythrocyte anisocytosis (%)||RFV||11.5-14.5|
Table 2. Leukocyte formula (norm)
|Indicator||9 / л × 10 9 / l||%|
|Basophils||up to 0,065||up to 1|
The following section describes the interpretation of the results of a clinical blood test - which conditions and diseases lead to a deviation from the norm.
Red blood cells
Their elevated levels are detected during hypoxia, dehydration, heart defects, an excess of steroid hormones and dysfunction of the adrenal cortex, and erythremia.
Decrease - with anemia, acute blood loss, in the II-III trimester of pregnancy, chronic inflammation, as well as in the pathologies of the bone marrow.
Many diseases are associated with disorders in the volume and structure of hemoglobin. A decrease in its level is detected in anemia, bleeding, tumors, kidney damage, and bone marrow. The increase may indicate blood clots due to dehydration, erythremia, iron supplementation.
This indicator is the ratio of erythrocytes and plasma, it determines the degree of development of anemia. Hematocrit is high with dehydration, polycythemia, peritonitis, extensive burns.
The decrease is accompanied by anemia, cancer, chronic inflammation, late pregnancy, fasting, chronic hyperazotemia, pathologies of the heart, blood vessels and kidneys.
The ratio of hemoglobin in one erythrocyte to the normal value reflects the color (or color) indicator. Its decline is detected in cases of lead poisoning, anemia of pregnant women and iron deficiency anemia.
Above normal, CP rises with deficiency of vitamins B12 and B9, gastric polyposis, and cancer.
This is the presence in the blood of different diameter red blood cells (mature - 7-8 microns, and microcytes - up to 6.7 microns), which indicates the development of anemia. Depending on their ratio, they determine various pathological conditions.
With iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia, the level of microcytes is 30-50%, and with a lack of folic acid, diffuse damage to the liver, macrocytic anemia, alcoholism, metastases in the bone marrow - more than 50%.
These cells are responsible for blood clotting. Their number decreases with leukemia, AIDS and other viral diseases, some genetic pathologies, aplastic anemia, bone marrow lesions, bacterial infections, medicinal, chemical, alcohol poisoning.
Platelets in the blood become less due to treatment with antibiotics, analgesics, estrogens, prednisone, nitroglycerin, antiallergic drugs and vitamin K. The growth in the number of these cells is observed in the following cases:
- joint diseases;
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- corticosteroid therapy;
- hemolytic anemia;
- after operations.
During pregnancy, menstruation, in the postpartum period, the rate at which erythrocytes settle is higher than usual. This indicator is also high in diseases of the liver, kidneys, connective tissue, injuries, infectious pathologies in acute and chronic form, inflammatory processes, anemia, poisoning and oncological diseases.
Reduction of ESR occurs when impaired blood circulation, anaphylactic shock, diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
Average platelet volume
In the blood there are young and old platelets, the first is always larger, the second are reduced in size. The duration of their life is 10 days. The lower the MPV value, the less mature, aged platelets in the bloodstream, and vice versa. Deviations in the ratio of such cells of different ages helps to diagnose many diseases.
Increased MPV can provoke diabetes mellitus, thrombocytodistrophy, blood pathology (systemic lupus), splenectomy, alcoholism, myeloid leukemia, vascular atherosclerosis, thalassemia (genetic abnormality in the structure of hemoglobin), May-Hegglin syndrome, post-hemorrhagic syndrome, postmortem.
Below the norm, this indicator falls due to radiation therapy, in case of liver cirrhosis, anemia (plastic and megaloblastic), Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome.
White blood cells
Leukocytosis is called an increase, and leukopenia is a decrease in the number of leukocytes in the plasma. White blood cells absorb pathogenic bacteria, viruses and other foreign objects, and produce antibodies that recognize pathogens. Leukocytosis is physiological and pathological.
In the first case, the reasons for the increase are food intake, pregnancy and childbirth, premenstrual syndrome, physical exertion and mental stress, hypothermia or overheating.
Of pathologies, WBC growth rates can cause hypoxia, suppuration, severe blood loss, intoxication or allergies, blood diseases, burns, epilepsy, administration of insulin hormones or adrenaline, and a malignant tumor.
Leukopenia occurs in radiation sickness, systemic lupus erythematosus, poisoning, liver cirrhosis, cancer metastases in the bone marrow, lymphogranulomatosis, functional nervous disorders, leukemia, acromegaly, bone marrow hypoplasia, due to the intake of certain drugs.
The level of white blood cells is also reduced in infectious and inflammatory pathologies - influenza, hepatitis, malaria, measles, colitis, and others.
Features during pregnancy
In women who are expecting a child, the volume of blood circulating in the body increases, and the level of the formed elements varies somewhat. During pregnancy, the study is conducted at least four times. The table below is the norm of the general blood test during pregnancy.
|Hemoglobin (g / l)||112-165||108-144||110-140|
|9 / л ) Leukocytes ( × 10 9 / l )||6-10,2||7.2-10.5||6.8-10, 5|
|12 / л ) Erythrocytes ( × 10 12 / l )||3.5-5, 5||3.2-4.8||3.5-5.0|
|9 / л ) Platelets ( × 10 9 / l )||180-320||200-340|
|ESR (in mm / h)||24||45||52|
|Color indicator (T.P.)||0.85-1.15|
Indications for general blood count
A general (clinical) blood test is indicated for the diagnosis:
- inflammatory and infectious diseases;
- malignant tumors;
- functional states of the body;
- blood diseases and systemic pathologies.
It is necessary for regular observation of chronically ill people, if during therapy there were complications and with prolonged recovery. In healthy children and adults, a general blood examination should be carried out once a year as a preventive measure.
Depending on the level of which blood cells deviates from the norm, they talk about anemia, erythrocytosis, neutropenia or other conditions.
How to perform a general blood test in adults?
A general blood test is taken on an empty stomach in the morning, with the exception of an emergency - a heart attack, appendicitis, and other emergency conditions.
Before delivery, you do not need to smoke, undergo stress, you can drink a little clean water, for 3-4 days you can not take alcohol. On the day of analysis should not allow large physical load.
For the study, capillary blood from the ring finger or the venous blood taken from the cubital vein is used - in this case, along with the general analysis, it is possible to conduct a study on infections, hormones and other indicators.
- When taking from the finger, the first drop is removed with a cotton ball, and the following are analyzed. – это может стать причиной повышения лейкоцитов и изменению других значений. It is impossible to rub or knead fingers before putting - this can cause an increase in white blood cells and a change in other values.