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Norm of pulse of the person on age - the table at men and women
Pulse rate is an important indicator in assessing the work of the heart. Its definition is a component in the diagnosis of arrhythmias and other diseases, sometimes quite serious. This publication discusses methods for measuring the pulse, the norms for age in adults and children, and the factors affecting its change.
What is a pulse?
Pulses are vibrations of the vascular walls that occur as a result of contractions of the heart muscles. This indicator allows to evaluate not only the strength and rhythm of the heartbeat, but also the state of the blood vessels.
In a healthy person, the intervals between pulsations should be the same, the unevenness of heart beats is regarded as a symptom of disturbances in the body - this can be either a heart disease or another disease, for example, a malfunction of the endocrine glands.
The pulse is measured by the number of pulse waves, or beats, per minute and has certain values - in adults it is from 60 to 90 at rest. The pulse rate in children is somewhat different (figures are presented in the table just below).
How to measure the pulse?
Pulse is measured by pulsating blood pulses in the radial artery, often at the comma from the inside, since the vessel in this place is located closest to the skin. For the greatest accuracy, indicators are fixed on both hands.
If there are no rhythm disturbances, it is enough to count the pulse in 30 seconds and multiply it by two. If heartbeats are non-rhythmic, then it is better to count the number of pulse waves in a whole minute.
In more rare cases, the counting is carried out in the places of passage of other arteries - the brachial, femoral, subclavian. Pulse can be measured by putting fingers to the neck at the site of the carotid artery or to the temple.
If careful diagnostics are necessary, for example, in case of suspicion of serious diseases, then other tests are performed to measure the pulse - Voltaire mounting (counting per day), ECG.
They also use the so-called treadmill test, when the work of the heart and blood pulsation are recorded by an electrocardiograph while the patient is moving on a treadmill. This test also shows how quickly the work of the heart and blood vessels after exercise comes to normal.
What influences pulse values?
If the rate of pulse in women and men at rest remains within 60-90, then for many reasons it may temporarily increase or acquire slightly elevated constant values.
This is influenced by age, physical exertion, food intake, change in body position, temperature and other environmental factors, stress, release of hormones into the blood. The number of pulse waves per minute always depends on the number of heartbeats (short heart rate) during the same time.
Typically, the pulse is normal in men by 5–8 beats lower than in women (60–70 per minute). Normal rates vary in children and adults, for example, in a newborn baby, a pulse of 140 beats is considered normal, and for an adult it is tachycardia, which can be either a temporary functional state or a sign of heart disease or other organs. The heart rate depends on the daily biorhythms and is highest in the period from 15 to 20 h.
Table of pulse rate by age for women and men
|Age||Min -max pulse||Average value||Blood pressure (systole / diastole)|
|0-1 months||110-170||140||60-80 / 40-50|
|From 1 month up to a year||102-162||132||100 / 50-60|
|1-2 years||94-155||124||100-110 / 60-70|
|6-8||78-118||98||110-120 / 60-80|
|10-12||60-100||80||110-120 / 70-80|
|Adults under 50||60-80||70||116-137 / 70-85||123-135 / 76-83|
|60-80||70-90||80||144-159 / 85||142 / 80-85|
In the table of norms of pressure and pulse by age, the values for healthy people who are at rest are indicated. Any changes in the body can provoke a deviation in the frequency of heart contractions from these indicators in one direction or another.
For example, during menopause , women experience physiological tachycardia and a slight increase in pressure, which is related to changes in hormonal levels.
When is the pulse high?
In the absence of pathological changes that affect the frequency of heartbeats, the pulse may increase under the influence of physical exertion, whether it is intense work or playing sports. The following factors can also increase it:
- stress, emotional impact;
- hot weather, stuffy indoors;
- strong pain.
With a functional increase in the pulse, there is no shortness of breath, dizziness, headaches and chest pains, it does not darken in the eyes, the heartbeat stays within the maximum norm and returns to its normal value 5-7 minutes after the cessation of exposure.
About the pathological tachycardia say, if there is any disease, for example:
- pathologies of the heart and blood vessels (for example, rapid pulse in hypertensive patients, those with ischemic disease);
- nerve pathologies;
- heart defects;
- the presence of tumors;
- infectious diseases, fever;
- hormonal disorders;
- copious menstruation (menorrhagia).
Some increase in the number of pulse waves is observed in pregnant women. In children, functional tachycardia is the norm, noted during active games, sports and other activities, and allows the heart to adapt to changing conditions.
Growth in heart rate, and therefore high pulse, is observed in adolescents with vegetative-vascular dystonia . During this period, it is important to carefully consider any changes - chest pain, the slightest shortness of breath, dizziness and other symptoms serve as a reason to show the child to the doctor, especially if there are diagnosed heart diseases.
What is bradycardia?
If tachycardia is called an increase in pulse, then bradycardia is low compared with the norm (less than 60 pulses per minute). Depending on the reasons, it is functional and pathological.
In the first case, the pulse is reduced during sleep and in trained people - in professional athletes, even 40 beats is considered as the norm. For example, the cyclist Lance Armstrong, he is in the range of 35-38 pulsations.
Reducing the pulse is also a manifestation of heart and vascular diseases - heart attack, age-related pathological changes, inflammation of the heart muscle. This is cardiac bradycardia, caused in most cases by a violation of the impulse between the nodes of the heart. At the same time the tissues are poorly supplied with blood, oxygen starvation develops.
Concomitant symptoms may be weakness, dizziness, fainting, cold sweat, pressure instability.
Bradycardia also develops due to hypothyroidism, gastric ulcer, myxedema, with increased intracranial pressure. Bradycardia less than 40 strokes is considered to be expressed, this state often becomes the cause of the development of heart failure.
If the frequency of strokes is reduced, and the causes are not detected, then bradycardia is called idiopathic. There is also a dosage form of this disorder, when the pulse drops after taking pharmacological drugs, for example, Diazepam, Phenobarbital, Anaprilin, valerian tincture or motherwort.
With age, the heart and blood vessels wear out, become weaker, and the deviation of the pulse from the norm is diagnosed in many after 45-50 years. Often this is not only a physiological feature, but also a symptom of serious changes in the work of the organs. Therefore, during this age period it is especially important to regularly visit a cardiologist and other specialists to monitor and treat existing diseases and to timely identify new health problems.