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Trigeminal neuralgia: symptoms and treatment, diagnosis

The trigeminal nerve belongs to the 5th pair of cranial nerves and has branches - an ocular, located in the region of the upper jaw and located in the region of the mandible. With the development of the inflammatory process in the area of ​​this nerve talk about neuralgia.

What it is?
The trigeminal nerve neuralgia is a disease of the chronic course in which nerve branches are affected, with the result that the patient is tormented by persistent paroxysmal pain in the area of ​​their innervation. With this pathology, pain occurs more often in one half of the face.

Neuralgia of the trigeminal nerve

Common causes of trigeminal neuralgia of the face are:

  1. Hypothermia of the body;
  2. Foci of chronic infection in the body (carious teeth, sinusitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, sinusitis);
  3. Tumor formations in the brain;
  4. Cerebral blood vessel aneurysm;
  5. Squeezing the nerve with the bones of the skull
  6. Osteochondrosis in the cervical region;
  7. Head injuries;
  8. Herpetic infection;
  9. Polio;
  10. Oral surgery on the oral cavity.

At risk are people:

  • Over 45 years old;
  • Subject to constant stress;
  • Suffering from beriberi;
  • Allergy sufferers;
  • Persons with helminthiasis ;
  • Sufferers of endocrine system organs ( diabetes , hypo and hyperthyroidism).


Symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia

Symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia

The main clinical symptom of trigeminal neuralgia is pain, usually localized on one half of the face. The attack occurs suddenly, with the slightest irritation of the affected nerve. The patient complains of the pain of a shooting character, which is often equated to current shocks.

The pain does not last long, usually no more than a few minutes. After this comes a period of remission, which can last up to several weeks or months, however, as the disease progresses, pains become more frequent, and the intervals between them become shorter.

With neuralgia 1 branch of the trigeminal nerve, pain is localized in the region of the wing of the nose, eyes, eyebrows, temple, crown.

Another attack of pain provoke simple actions of the patient:

  • Smile, laugh, yawn;
  • Hygiene procedures and a simple touch to the face, etc .;
  • Eating and chewing;
  • Stay in the cold or draft.

In addition to pain, before the start of effective treatment, the following conditions are symptoms of trigeminal neuralgia:

  1. Tearing from the side of the lesion;
  2. Abundant clear discharge from the nose is possible;
  3. Redness of the lower eyelids and mucous membranes of the eyes;
  4. Twitching of the facial muscles - the affected half is convulsively reduced;
  5. Violations of the patient's mind - so any actions (laughter, eating, yawning, etc.) can provoke another attack of pain, the patient becomes irritable, withdrawn, refuses to eat, is afraid to fall asleep. In addition, in severe cases, suicidal thoughts are possible;
  6. Violation of the sensitivity of half of the face - the patient complains of numbness of the face in the affected area, a feeling of crawling under the skin;
  7. Muscle atrophy of the affected half of the face - develops as a result of circulatory disorders and lymphatic drainage. Under the influence of such changes on the affected half of the face, eyelashes, eyebrows, teeth fall out, wrinkles appear, a corner of the lips rises and the eyelid drops, the chewing ability deteriorates.

Diagnosis of neuralgia

Diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia begins with a visit to a neuropathologist. The doctor examines the patient during remission and after exposure to pain points, the impact on which can cause an attack of pain, collects a history of life and illness, assigns additional studies:

  • Electroneurography;
  • Computed tomography, MRI;
  • Electroencephalography;
  • Blood biochemistry;
  • Spinal cord puncture, if necessary, in cases of suspected meningitis ;
  • Consultation otolaryngologist, dentist, neurosurgeon.

Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia

Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia Therapy of the disease is carried out in a complex, the main steps in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia are as follows:

  • Preventing factors that can trigger the development of neuralgia;
  • Normalization of the work of the central nervous system - prevention of stress, reducing hyper-irritability;
  • Physiotherapy procedures - electrophoresis, acupuncture, massage.

To relieve an attack of trigeminal neuralgia and prevent pain, the patient is then prescribed Finlepsin. This medicine belongs to the group of anticonvulsants and helps reduce the excitability of nerve fibers and inhibit the production of neurotransmitters.

This tool can be taken strictly according to the testimony of a doctor and in an individually indicated dosage, since the tablets have a number of serious contraindications.

In addition to finlepsin, a patient is prescribed:

  • Vitamins of group B - beneficially affect the work of the central nervous system;
  • Sedatives - Valerian;
  • Glycine or Glyceced - amino acids involved in the transmission of nerve impulses;
  • Antihistamines;
  • Muscle relaxants;
  • Antidepressants.

During stable remission, physiotherapy and spa treatment is indicated.

Surgical treatment of trigeminal neuralgia

If conservative treatment methods are not effective, the patient is prescribed a surgical intervention. The main indications are brain tumors, the presence of narrowed areas in the nerve exit channel from the skull, pinching of the nerve branches, inflammation of the trigeminal nerve .

In modern surgery, surgery to eliminate trigeminal neuralgia is performed by a laser. This intervention is minimally invasive and well tolerated by the patient.


When applying for medical assistance on time and correctly prescribed treatment, the prognosis of the disease is generally favorable. Performing simple preventive recommendations allows you to achieve a stable remission or completely get rid of the problem.

Self-treatment is strictly forbidden, since it can lead to the progression of the disease and aggravate the clinical picture of neuralgia.

Tatyana Volkova
2017-11-30 06:19:49
Good article, thanks!

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