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Diabetes insipidus: causes, symptoms and treatment of the disease

Diabetes insipidus is also called diabetes insipidus diabetes - this pathology is extremely rare in people, in about 2 cases per 60 thousand people.

Content

What is diabetes insipidus?

What is diabetes insipidus?

Thirst caused by constant urge to urinate

Diabetes insipidus is an endocrine disease, which is caused by insufficient production of antidiuretic hormone by the hypothalamus, resulting in a decrease in the density of urine and an excessive release of urine is observed (up to 12 liters per day).

The disease is most common in women older than 40 years.

Classification

First of all, you should know that diabetes non-sugar type is of two forms:

  1. Central form.
  2. Renal form.

The most common is the central form of the disease, which is subdivided into idiopathic (without cause) diabetes and symptomatic (developed under the influence of some factors of the surrounding and internal environment).

There is also congenital diabetes insipidus, which develops as a result of chromosomal abnormalities.

Causes of diabetes insipidus

Signs and symptoms of diabetes insipidus The following predisposing factors may cause the development of the disease diabetes insipidus of symptomatic form:

  • Impaired functioning of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, as a result of which the process of production of antidiuretic hormone is disrupted;
  • Brain tumors are benign or malignant;
  • The growth of metastases in the brain;
  • Transferred surgery, craniotomy;
  • Traumatic brain injuries;
  • Vascular insufficiency;
  • Tuberculosis, malaria, syphilis and other infectious diseases.

With the idiopathic form of diabetes insipidus in the patient's body, for no apparent reason, antibodies begin to be produced, which destroy cells that produce antidiuretic hormone.

Renal diabetes insipidus (renal form) occurs as a result of chemical intoxication of the body, disorders or previous diseases of the kidneys and urinary system (renal failure, hypercalcinosis, amyloidosis, glomerulonephritis).

Signs and symptoms of diabetes insipidus

There are signs that are most characteristic of diabetes insipidus:

  1. PPP - polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia (increased urination, hunger, thirst). The volume of urine with diabetes insipidus can reach about 12-18 liters per day. Due to the large amount of excreted urine, its density and specific gravity decrease, as a result of which it becomes transparent and colorless, has no odor, salts, or form elements;
  2. Neurosis - develops in patients as a concomitant symptom, since the constant urge to urinate disrupts the usual rhythm of life and bother the patient very much;
  3. Insomnia;
  4. Increased secretion of the sweat and salivary glands, causing the patient's skin and mucous membranes to become dry;
  5. The appearance of microscopic cracks in the skin and mucous membranes as a result of their excessive dryness, it is possible to attach a secondary bacterial infection when penetrating into the wounds of pathogenic microorganisms;
  6. Dehydration;
  7. Rapid weight loss;
  8. Omission of internal organs, as a result of which their work and functions are impaired.

Even if the patient is restricted in using liquid, the urine will still be excreted in large quantities, which will lead to a general dehydration of the organism.

Symptoms of diabetes insipidus in women

Symptoms of diabetes insipidus in women

Diabetes insipidus in women during pregnancy

The symptoms of diabetes insipidus in women are supplemented by menstrual irregularities, uterus prolapse , the inability to get pregnant and bear a child.

In some women, diabetes insipidus develops in the last stages of pregnancy and is caused by the destruction of vasopressin hormone (antidiuretic hormone) by enzymes of the placenta.

In such a situation, the disease requires monitoring and observation and passes on its own shortly after the birth of the child.

Diagnosis of diabetes insipidus

With the appearance of increased thirst and an increase in the number of urinations, the patient should consult an endocrinologist.

The specialist will collect anamnesis and prescribe a patient to pass a urine analysis according to Zimnitsky - 9 jars (8 and 1 spare) are given in which the patient must urinate every 3 hours. This study allows us to estimate the daily amount of urine and kidney function.

The urine collected per day is studied in detail, evaluate it:

  • Amount;
  • Specific gravity and density;
  • The content of salts and minerals;
  • The number of formed elements of cells.

In order to eliminate diabetes mellitus, fasting blood testing is recommended.

In order to determine the cause of the development of diabetes insipidus diabetes, a CT scan or MRI is performed — these studies can accurately determine the presence of lesions, tumors or metastases in the brain.

In addition, the patient is advised to consult a urologist or a nephrologist.

Treatment of diabetes insipidus

Treatment of diabetes insipidus

A successful outcome of therapy for this pathology is to accurately determine and eliminate the main cause causing malfunctions in the production of vasopressin, for example, a tumor or brain metastases in the central form of diabetes insipidus.

Drugs for diabetes mellitus are selected by the attending physician, all of them are a synthetic analogue of antidiuretic hormone. Depending on the duration of the drug, the drug should be taken several times a day or once every few days (long-acting drugs).

In diabetes of the non-sugar type of the central form, the most commonly used drugs are Carbamazepine or Chlorpropamide - these drugs stimulate the production and release of vasopressin.

In order to prevent dehydration of the body against the background of abundant and frequent urination, saline solutions are administered intravenously to the patient.

Treatment of diabetes insipidus in women is an additional consultation of the gynecologist and the correction of the menstrual cycle.

Complications of diabetes insipidus

A dangerous complication of the disease is the loss of body fluids, since, despite increased thirst, water is not fully replenished.

Signs of dehydration can be recognized by the presence of the following symptoms:

  • Increase in general weakness;
  • Cardiopalmus;
  • Edema of the lower extremities;
  • Vomiting, nausea;
  • The pronounced smell of acetone from the mouth, which is caused by thickening of the blood and the accumulation of ketone bodies;
  • Reduced blood pressure;
  • Neurological disorders;
  • Loss of consciousness;
  • Acute vascular insufficiency.
  • . In severe cases, coma and death are developing .

Diet for diabetes insipidus

Diet for diabetes insipidus is an important part of effective therapy. In order to reduce the burden on the kidneys, it is necessary to sharply limit the consumption of animal protein.

The diet consists of vegetable products, cereals, fruits. Meals should be divided into 7-8 times in small portions.

Juice, fruit drinks, fruit drinks, pure non-carbonated mineral water are excellent for quenching thirst.

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