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External hemorrhoids: symptoms and treatment in stages

Hemorrhoids is a disease known by first-hand 2/3 of the population. The absence of a full treatment of the disease is fraught with serious consequences, sometimes life-threatening to the patient.

Methods and treatment regimens depend on the form of hemorrhoids (internal or external), the stage of its development and the presence / absence of complicating conditions.


External hemorrhoids - what is it?

External hemorrhoids

External hemorrhoids in women are visually visible nodes around the anus. Hemorrhoids are nothing but varicose veins of the perianal vascular plexus. The weakness of the vascular wall provokes blood stasis in these vessels, their expansion, and the development of the disease - an inflammatory reaction.

The enlarged hemorrhoidal plexus appears as saphenous veins protruding in the form of bluish cones. Symptomatology increases with an increase in hemorrhoids and the progression of varicose vascular disease.

Hemorrhoids, both internal (nodes are located on the inner wall of the rectum) and external - a disease that characterizes a person's lifestyle. In a person suffering from hemorrhoids, one or more provoking factors are often noted:

  • Sedentary life - sitting / standing work (programmers, accountants, vendors);
  • Regular weight lifting - farm work, female athletes (lifting barbell);
  • Eating habits - the predominance in the diet of meat, hot spices;
  • Alcohol abuse, smoking (nicotine severely damages the walls of blood vessels).

Often, however, external varicose veins in the area of ​​the anus appear because:

  • Hereditary predisposition - often combined with hemorrhoids with varicose veins of the lower extremities , which developed at a young age;
  • Pregnancy and childbirth (especially repeated or late);
  • Chronic constipation, gastrointestinal diseases;
  • Obesity;
  • Infections of the pelvic organs (inflammation provokes a rush of blood to the hemorrhoidal plexus and its stagnation).

External hemorrhoids during pregnancy occurs due to compression of the growing uterus of the vascular bed. Often, with timely local treatment, proper care and rational nutrition after childbirth, he self-eliminates.

Symptoms of external hemorrhoids in stages

Symptoms of external hemorrhoids in stages

Symptoms of external hemorrhoids are the harder, the longer the varicose process proceeds and the longer the disease remains without proper treatment.

Stages of external hemorrhoids:

  • Stage 1

External hemorrhoids in the initial stage (photo) are small nodes that increase with bowel movement (especially with constipation), itching and burning sensation. Fast relief comes after a warm bath, regular walks, nutrition correction.

  • Stage 2

Discomfort in the anal zone increases, often with bowel movements, pain occurs and red blood appears (its traces remain on toilet paper).

  • Stage 3
external hemorrhoids photo stage 3

external hemorrhoids photo stage 3

Hemorrhoidal bumps of considerable size, can be reduced, but quickly appear again. Bleeding can be long (up to several weeks), although their intensity is not as strong as with the internal nodes.

Irritation of delicate skin provokes the formation of cracks, and mucous discharge increases swelling and redness even more. Relief comes only after drug therapy.

  • Stage 4

The large size of varicose nodes (impossible to correct) interfere not only with a normal bowel movement, but also with the usual life. The patient is afraid of unbearable pain and burning, thereby provoking the tension of the anal sphincter and aggravating the venous stasis.

Pain in the anal zone does not pass even at rest.

Often develops purulent inflammation with the formation of fistulas. The general condition suffers: the patient notes weakness, fever, intoxication. In a neglected form, the loss of internal hemorrhoids is possible (they are distinguished by the fact that they have a mucous membrane, the outer bumps are covered with skin). Treatment often requires radical operational measures.

Complications of external hemorrhoids

Complications of external hemorrhoids

photo complications of external hemorrhoids

  • Excessive bleeding and anemia.
  • Infection of cracks with the subsequent development of paraproctitis and pararectal fistulas.
  • Thrombosis of the node .

Sharp incessant pain, aggravated by coughing / sneezing, is a reason for urgent treatment in a hospital. Medical consultation is also required for severe edema of the perianal area and high temperature (suspected of spreading inflammation).


Diagnosis is usually not difficult - clear signs of the disease are visible visually. However, the doctor is obliged to appoint an examination to identify the cause of the disease and confirm the presence of internal hemorrhoids.

The diagnostic complex for external hemorrhoids includes:

  • digital examination of the rectum;
  • sigmoidoscopy;
  • blood test for prothrombin.

Treatment of external hemorrhoids in stages

external hemorrhoids photo initial stage

external hemorrhoids photo initial stage and treatment

Methods of treatment of external hemorrhoids depend on the degree of development, but at any stage the patient should observe the following recommendations:

  1. Correction of nutrition and the fight against constipation - the exception of overeating and spicy / fatty foods, the predominance in the diet of plant fibers, sufficient fluid intake.
  2. Physical activity according to age and condition - daily walks, exercises at the workplace, exceptions to lifting weights.
    Treatment of gastrointestinal diseases.
  3. Preventive courses venotonikov varicose veins of the lower extremities.

Treatment of external hemorrhoids stage 1

Often enough correction of life habits. However, preventive courses of plant venotonics are recommended for strengthening the vascular wall (the best is chestnut tincture, suitable for pregnant women).

Perianal stage 2 therapy

Local treatment is sufficient to eliminate the symptoms. For the treatment of external hemorrhoids in 2 stages apply ointments and suppositories:

  • Anestezol, suppositories with papaverine - quickly eliminate pain, safe during pregnancy.
  • Glycerin suppositories are a cheap, safe remedy for constipation.
  • Askleyan is a herbal remedy that eliminates venous congestion and strengthens the vascular wall.

Review - Candles for hemorrhoids - inexpensive and effective

Treatment of hemorrhoids stage 3-4

More pronounced symptoms require the use of highly effective means of versatile action. For the treatment of external hemorrhoids are used candles, ointments and tablets:

  • Methyluracil ointment - heals cracks, eliminating itching and burning in the shortest possible time.
  • Relief is the most popular antihemorrhoidal remedy, effectively combating painful symptoms and inflammation.
  • Heparin ointment, Hepatotrombin - prevents the formation of blood clots, the latter drug has an anti-inflammatory effect.
  • Detralex, Venadiol - preformed venotonic, long courses are required for 3-4 stages of hemorrhoids.
  • Ginkor Fort - improving microcirculation, prevents thrombosis and alleviates hemorrhoidal pain.

Surgical procedures for the removal of external hemorrhoids

Quickly cure external hemorrhoids can only radical measures. The following types of surgery are practiced:

  1. Infrared photocoagulation is effective only in the initial stages of the disease.
  2. Scletotherapy - the introduction into the nodes of sclerosing substances, leading to their desolation and resorption. Contraindicated in complicating conditions: non-healing cracks, paraproctitis, thrombosis.
  3. Latex ligation - fixation of varicose nodes of the anus with latex rings (it is advisable if operative treatment is not possible - old age, comorbidities).
  4. Surgical intervention - thrombectomy - excision of hemorrhoids. It is performed under local anesthesia in conditions that threaten the patient’s life (bleeding, thrombosis of the nodes, etc.).

All these methods do not eliminate the cause of the disease - pathological weakness of the walls of blood vessels. Therefore, even after their successful conduct, the return of the disease is possible (the appearance of new bumps, the formation of internal hemorrhoids).

Therefore, after surgery, the course therapy with venotonic drugs is always required.

Treatment of external hemorrhoids at home

Treatment of external hemorrhoids at home The use of home remedies only fixes the result of drug treatment. Recipes from medicinal plants will be a good addition to the main treatment. The following folk methods are used:

  • lubrication with onion juice (it may cause burning during microcracks), birch tar, sea buckthorn oil (strong wound-healing effect);
  • lotion from raw potatoes and clay;
  • compresses with a decoction of the train, chamomile (the latter, when taken orally, effectively eliminates constipation);
  • ingestion of broth "hemorrhoids grass" - mountaineer pochechuynogo (take a cautious, strong blood-forming effect).

It is advisable to use all home remedies for the treatment of external hemorrhoids only in the initial stages of the pathological process, since the effect develops gradually.


In order to avoid the development of hemorrhoids, proctologists recommend:

  • Eat well.
  • Follow the drinking regime.
  • Do not neglect physical loads (rational!).
  • Try to avoid constipation (taking laxatives, massage the abdomen in a clockwise direction).
  • If the anal skin is too sensitive, replace the toilet paper with a wash.
  • Treat the first manifestations of varicose veins on the legs (spider veins, heaviness and edema).

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