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Explanation of analyzes

Menstrual irregularity: causes and treatment

  • The main causes of menstrual irregularities

The menstrual cycle is established in adolescence and accompanies a woman throughout the childbearing period, up to 40-45 years. His presence signals that the reproductive system is ready to conceive and bear a child, and that the body actively produces female sex hormones.

The causes of menstrual cycle disorders (as it is sometimes called in the people, the correct name of "menstrual") are due to a number of factors, among which one can note the following:

Violation of the menstrual cycle Hormonal failure - irregular periods may be due to a disruption in the functioning of the woman's endocrine system. With a shortage of estrogens, the first phase of the cycle is significantly extended, and no dominant is released from the antral follicles. With an excess of testosterone, the dominant follicle capsule thickens.

As a result, the egg can not get out of it and the follicle turns into a follicular cyst. With a deficiency of progesterone, the second phase of the cycle becomes too short, which significantly brings the arrival of menstruation.

In addition, the violation of hormone production can cause pathological changes in the structure of the endometrium, which not only leads to a violation of the menstrual cycle, but also to intermenstrual bleeding.

Failures in the work of the endocrine system are one of the main prerequisites for cycle disorders. All other reasons are only its consequence. More about hormonal failure in women .

PCOS and MFIA - polycystic ovary syndrome and multifollicular ovaries. These two pathologies are associated with the disruption of the operation of paired female gonads. They are often the cause of delays and the appearance of cysts.

Women who have been diagnosed with one of these diseases have an irregular menstrual cycle, which has the property to last a different amount of time. As a result, the intervals between menstrual bleeding can be up to 60-70 days (more about PCOS ).

STDs are sexually transmitted diseases. Unlike hormonal failures, they can only cause a malfunction of the menstrual cycle once and only completely disappear after treatment.

Most often infections caused by delays and intermenstrual bleeding are chlamydia , gonococci, as well as exacerbation of ureaplasmosis and mycoplasmosis.

Violation of the pituitary and hypothalamus - these parts of the brain produce luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones (LH and FSH), as well as estrogens, progesterone and prolactin. Failures in the work of these glands can affect the change in the character of menstruation, both in the direction of their increase, and in the direction of decrease.

Physiological age changes - this category includes disorders of the menstrual cycle in those women over 40. The stock of eggs by this time ends and the ovarian reserve is depleted. This leads to a marked decrease in the level of estradiol and progesterone, which provokes the irregularity of the menstrual period.

Content

Types of menstrual irregularities

Types of menstrual irregularities

Different causes of menses disorders can differently affect the appearance of menstruation. Therefore, dysfunction of the reproductive system can be divided into two types depending on the frequency and nature of bleeding.

Types of violations of the menstrual cycle by periodicity:

  • Polymenorea - assumes a short cycle, less than 22 days. It is characterized by a frequent absence of ovulation and a deficiency of the yellow body, in cases where the maturation of the egg does occur. Polymenorea can mean both a single-phase and a two-phase cycle. However, in two-phase, usually, there is a deficiency of the first or second phase, or both.
  • Oligomenorea - suggests the onset of menstruation at intervals of 40 to 90 days. This is the most common type of menstrual cycle disorders, its cause is most often PCOS . Often before the beginning of such menstruation for 2-3 days, spotting spotting is observed.
  • Amenorrhea - involves menstrual bleeding, which appear with a frequency of once every 3 months or more. Most often occurs with increased physical exertion, exhaustion of the ovarian reserve, stress and excess body weight.

Types of violations of the menstrual cycle by the character of bloody discharge:

  • Scarce menstruation - characterized by smearing bloody discharge, the duration of which does not exceed 3 days. Such periods are painless, are not accompanied by general weakness and do not have a pronounced premenstrual syndrome.
  • Abundant menstruation - characterized by great blood loss, severe pain in the lower abdomen (especially several hours before the menstrual period and in the first hours after their onset). Often have a pronounced premenstrual syndrome and a duration of at least 6 to 7 days.
  • Intermenstrual bleeding - characterized by smearing bloody discharge, which appear in the middle of the cycle and last 2-3 days. Do not confuse them with bloody secretions provoked by ovulation. The release of the ovule from the follicle can contribute to the appearance of only a few drops of blood, which are expressed in the form of ungrowing light brown one-day discharge. Intermenstrual bleeding is more abundant and has a bright color.
  • Premenstrual bleeding - characterized by the appearance of smearing brown secretions for a few days before menstruation. Usually they increase and develop into menstruation. They are a characteristic symptom of endometriosis.
  • Postmenstrual bleeding - characterized by the presence of smearing bloody discharge, which is observed several days after the termination of menstruation and gradually disappear. They are a sign of chronic endometritis .

Any of these types of menstrual irregularity can occur in a woman in the 40 - 45 years of age at the onset of menopause. Bleeding then becomes scarce and rare, it becomes breakthrough and stops only for a short period of time.

Possible complications

At any age, menstrual irregularities can lead to various complications that will be hazardous to health.

  • Anemia - can be caused by too abundant periods. Especially great is its risk in the event that bleeding is frequent, with an interval of 2 - 3 weeks.
  • A hematometer is the accumulation of blood and blood clots in the uterus, which for certain reasons can not completely come out. Instead of normal menstruation in this case, there are very scarce, but long-term bleeding.
  • Infertility - is not a direct consequence of irregular menstruation, but irregularities in the menstrual cycle signal that the woman's endocrine system is not functioning properly. The longer the start of treatment is delayed, the greater the probability of infertility.

Treatment of menstrual irregularities

Treatment of menstrual irregularities

Depending on the nature of the irregular menstruation, the method of treatment will be determined. It provides for two directions: drug therapy and surgical intervention.

Moreover, the first option is aimed, usually, at eliminating the cause of the cycle, and the second, involving surgical care, is aimed at eliminating the consequences of the pathological course of menstruation.

  • Conservative treatment

Therapy involves two tasks: regulating the hormonal background and reducing blood loss. Before prescribing the medication the doctor should familiarize himself with the results of ultrasound.

Oral contraceptives - often have in their composition the hormones of both the first and second phase. To regulate the cycle, the administration of OK is prescribed for several months (from 3 to 6). Endocrine glands under the influence of synthetic analogues of hormones will function normally and the monthly will begin to arrive on time.

However, with such treatment there are a number of difficulties. First, there is a category of women who do not tolerate oral contraceptives. Secondly, treatment with such drugs can only have a temporary effect, and after several months the menstrual cycle will again become irregular.

Hormonal preparations - unlike oral contraceptives, they contain a synthetic analogue of only one hormone, or they contain substances that interfere with the production of a certain hormone.

There, the doctor can prescribe a separate drug for each hormone that exceeds the permissible norm or has a concentration below the norm.

Hemostatic drugs - are prescribed for such violations of menstruation, which are characterized by excessive blood loss. Unlike hormonal drugs, the use of haemostatic drugs does not treat the cause of hormonal failure, but only its consequence - bleeding.

Disruption of the menstrual cycle in women after 45 years of age requires only symptomatic medical treatment, as the body enters the menopause and after a certain period of time, the month will cease forever.

  • Surgery

Irregular menstruation, provoked by hormonal disorders, can lead to the accumulation of blood clots in the uterine cavity, which for various reasons can not completely pour into the vagina.

To avoid inflammation and to relieve the patient of the constant meager bleeding, a scraping of the body of the uterus is performed. For the treatment, a woman should lie down for a while in the hospital.

The operation is performed under general anesthesia, and the contents of the uterine cavity, which was extracted outward, is sent for histology. If you do not adjust the menstrual cycle with hormonal drugs, then the clots can accumulate over time and the surgery will need to be repeated.

If menstruation is irregular, you should pay close attention to this and do not delay the visit to the doctor.

Interesting
Olga Filatova
2017-05-15 05:42:25
thanks for the article, I now very relevant.

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