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Microsporia in humans: photos, signs, initial stage, treatment and drugs

Microsporia, commonly known as ringworm , is an infectious disease transmitted from sick animals. That is why the characteristic spots on the skin most often appear in children who love to tinker with cats and dogs (especially homeless).

To prevent the spread of pathological spots in a patient and infection of healthy people, one should know the first signs, characteristic of the initial stage of microsporia, and obligatory medical measures.

Content

Microsporia - what is it?

Microsporia in humans

Microsporia is a skin disease from the group of mycoses, triggered by infection with the fungus Microsporum. Manifestations (signs) occur both on the smooth and on the hairy part of the skin (see photo).

Being introduced into the skin, the fungus forms colonies in the hair follicles of the scalp or fluff hair covering almost the entire body. However, foci of microsporia, although extremely rare, can also occur in areas completely devoid of hair, such as palms, soles, and nails.

Microsporia is highly contagious (contagious), while the source of infection is sick animals.

In nature, microsporia can hurt dogs and cats, rabbits, large domestic animals (pigs, goats, horses, sheep), as well as wild animals (monkeys, foxes, tigers, foxes). Infection occurs not only through direct contact with a sick animal, but also when wool and scales fall into the hands of a person with care items and fodder, through bedding and other equipment.

Moreover, in animals, the disease often proceeds hidden: lesions are detected only when a fluorescent lamp is illuminated (green light). Only sometimes on the head, paws or tail can you notice foci with protruding fragments of hair and scales.

It is not excluded the transfer of the fungus from a sick person to a healthy one. You can become infected even by contact with untreated clothing of a person who had been ill for some time. The fungus microsporia, due to the six-layer membrane and the ribs in the form of a cobweb, is quite stable in the external environment and retains its viability for up to 3 months outside the human or animal body.

Microsporia in children - features of the disease

The prevalence of skin microsporia in children is explained by the following facts:

  • A special "love" to mess with homeless kittens and puppies.
  • Failure of strict hygiene rules - unwashed hands.
  • Insufficient immune protection, weakening of the immune system, frequent colds.
  • In sebum in adults there are organic acids that negatively affect the reproduction of the fungus. Skin immunity in children is less developed.
  • Frequent skin trauma (cuts, abrasions, scratches and minor wounds) that contribute to the spread of the disease when ingested fungus.
  • Inexplicable from a medical point of view, the red-haired children barely suffer from ringworm.

Signs of microsporia in humans, photo

Signs of microsporia in humans, photo

microsporia smooth skin, photo

Signs of microsporia in humans, photo

photo microsporia in humans

The incubation period for microsporia is 5-7 days for infections from an animal and up to 4-6 weeks for infections from a sick person.

External manifestations of microsporia depend on the localization of the pathological focus.

Microsporia smooth skin

Microsporia smooth skin photo

Initially, a red spot of a rounded shape appears, with clear boundaries, somewhat elevated above the skin. Very quickly, a periphery forms a roller with tiny bubbles and crusts, and a fungal stain grows to 3 cm.

The central part of the pathological focus pales and becomes covered with rather large, scaly-shaped scales. Most often found 1 - 3 lesions on the face, neck, upper limbs.

Itching with microsporia is present, but not as intense as, for example, in allergic rashes.

Microsporia scalp

Microsporia scalp

Most often occurs in the region of the crown and temples, as well as on the crown. A colony of the fungus looks like this: a large central spot, reaching 5 cm, and smaller (up to 1.5 cm) screenings around the circumference. With growth, the central spot can absorb nearby small foci.

Microsporia on the head of a person in the initial stage forms focal desquamation. On closer examination, a whitish “cuff” around hairs growing inside the spot can be seen. This indicates the reproduction of fungus in the mouth of the hair, which already a week later leads to their breaking off.

Outwardly, it looks like a cut at the level of 4-6 cm spot. Broken, with a grayish patina hairs are a haven for fungal spores. The changed position of the hair "hemp" when stroking is preserved, unlike healthy hair.

Actually the scalp in the lesions is somewhat hyperemic, edematous and covered with small scales of white or grayish color.

Atypical forms

  • Microsporia of the nails - closer to the edge of the cut of the nail, a dull stain forms, further acquiring a white color. The nail plate in the lesion becomes soft and crumbles easily.
  • The festering microsporia is the result of improper treatment. On the background of the lesion formed purple-bluish nodules and pustules. There may be fever and an increase in nearby lymph nodes.
  • Aggravated microsporia - it occurs chronically against the background of serious internal diseases (tuberculosis, arthritis, etc.). At the same time, against the background of focal or diffuse desquamation, alopecia areas (bald patches) are formed, the overall sparsity of hair is noticeable. Hair fragments reach a length of 10-15 mm and do not have gray covers of fungal spores.
  • Microsporia pubis - fraught with infection of the sexual partner. The extensive circulatory system of this area leads to the rapid spread of spots on the labia, the inner thighs and lower abdomen. A bacterial infection with the formation of infiltrates covered with purulent crusts also quite quickly joins.

Treatment of microsporia in humans, drugs

Treatment of microsporia in humans, drugs

photo preparations

The earlier microsporia is recognized and its full treatment is prescribed, the faster the recovery will come. The main direction in the treatment of microsporia in humans is the destruction of the fungus. Given the high resistance of microsporum, local antifungal treatment is complemented by high doses of systemic antimycotics, especially with massive damage to smooth skin or long hair.

Medicines for topical treatment of microsporia:

  • Clotrimazole - non-toxic, but not highly effective ointment is the drug of choice for the treatment of microsporia in children under 3 years old and pregnant.
  • Isoconazole, Bifonazol - give a high percentage of allergic reactions.
  • Ketoconazole is highly effective, but highly toxic.
  • Terbinafine is the best drug for microsporia in terms of non-toxicity, efficacy and price. This is the most inexpensive and effective remedy for ringworm, a more expensive counterpart - Lamisil.
  • Ointments containing sulfur (sulfur-salicylic, sulfur-tar, sulfur) and iodine solution - in the treatment of microsporia are used in combination with antifungal external agents.
  • Combined agents (Triderm, Mikozolon, Travokort), which have corticosteroids in their composition, are suitable only for microsporia that is complicated by suppuration. It should be remembered: hormonal ointments with prolonged use provoke skin atrophy.

The complex of treatment of microsporia of the scalp includes:

  1. The antimycotic antibiotic Griseofulvin is the drug of choice, quite toxic. For children up to 3 years is available in suspension.
  2. High doses of the drug are needed - 22 mg / kg body weight. It should not be taken with penicillins (simultaneous use causes an allergic reaction).
  3. Hepatoprotectors (Kars, Liv-52 and others) - to reduce the toxicity of Griseofulvin and protect the liver.
  4. Antihelmintic drugs (Dekaris) - degelmentization is necessary to increase the effectiveness of antimycotics and reduce the immuno-lowering effect of Griseofulvin.
  5. Terbinafin tablets (Lamisil) - a less toxic alternative to Griseofulvin, not inferior to him in effectiveness.

Mandatory measures in identifying microsporia in humans:

  • Removal of damaged hair (hair removal, daily shave).
  • Shampooing twice a week.
  • Regular change of linen.
  • Limiting contact with a sick person. Isolation of a child from a preschool, school in the treatment of microsporia in children.
  • Inspection of people in contact with a sick person.
  • Examination of pets by a veterinarian.
  • Disinfection of care items (towels, combs), clothes, children's toys using disinfectants. Spring-cleaning.

All treatment takes 3-6 weeks. Recovery is ascertained with a negative analysis of scraping from the site of injury.

Do not hope for folk remedies. Microsporia is a fungal disease, and it is necessary to treat it with antimycotics. Home-made methods (rubbing with vinegar, etc.) often have a cauterizing effect, and additional irritation can provoke the spread of infection. Burns may occur.

Prevention of microsporia

To rule out microsporia, the following rules must be observed:

Avoid contact with stray animals.

Buy pets only after being examined by a veterinarian. Periodically conduct preventive examinations of pets.

Quarantine measures in detecting microsporia in a child: isolation from kindergarten / school, disinfection measures, observation of contacts with the patient.

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