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Miase in humans: pathogen, types, treatment

Myoses are parasitic diseases caused by dipterans, and there are several types. Distributed in tropical countries, are also found in southern Russia, the Caucasus and Kazakhstan. About what are miasis that affects a person, and what methods are used to treat them, described below.

Content

Miaz - what is it?

Miase in humans

Miases are diseases caused by the ingress of larvae of certain types of flies into the body of animals and humans. Adult insects lay eggs under the skin, eyes, ears, nose, open wounds, or infection occurs by ingesting eggs or larvae that have already hatched in the external environment.

Myoses develop as a benign or malignant pathology and often become the cause of disability or death. Arise mainly in places with poor sanitary and hygienic conditions.

The causative agent of human myasis

More often than others, several species of insects are the causative agents of human miasis:

  • bollard - affects the skin;
  • sand flea - makes moves and lays eggs under the skin, where the larvae develop and increase in size, leading to the appearance of painful ulcers;
  • tungsten fly - infects open skin lesions (wounds, ulcers);
  • Gadflies, often Russian and sheep;
  • gray meat flies;
  • calliforida;
  • cheese flies;
  • hotshots;
  • raznimozhki

The larvae of flies parasitize in the intestines (room, blue meat, green flies, Drosophila, gadfly species Gastrophilus equi), eyes (abdominal gadfly), genitourinary system (flies of the genus Fannia), nasal passages (Cochliomyia genus), skin (Hypoderma, Dermatobia), in the mouth (Calliphoridae and Sarcophagedae fly larvae). Eggs can get into the body with dirty food or water.

The larvae of flies have a high survival rate, since they are resistant to the effects of many chemicals - weak acids and alkalis, alcohol, formalin and others. This explains their ability to live for a long time in the intestines and other places unusual for adults.

Types of human mias

Types of Mias

According to the types of flies and the properties of their myase larvae, there are:

  1. Facultative - develop in case of accidental infection with insect eggs, which are not peculiar to parasitizing in the human body. An example is getting into the body of the larvae of a meat or room fly.
  2. Obligate - caused exclusively by parasitic insects.
  3. Accidental - infection occurs from flies, the larvae of which usually live in rotting debris, and accidentally penetrate into the human body, for example, if swallowed contaminated food or larvae enter the urethra from the surface of dirty laundry.

Types of miasis by localization:

  • tissue;
  • abdominal;
  • intestinal;
  • ocular.

Tissue miasis is also called dermal and can be:

  • epidermal - the larvae develop and live in the layer of the epidermis and do not penetrate deeper;
  • subcutaneous - connective tissue is affected, often with epidermal tissue;
  • proper tissue - accompanied by the destruction of even deeper soft tissues up to the muscles and tendons.

Abdominal myasis can be localized in the genitals, urinary tract, oral cavity, in the hearing aid (affecting the eardrum, middle ear, sometimes reaching the brain membranes). The urinogenital system is often affected by the larvae of a tungsten fly, as well as flies of the genus Fannia.

The eye miasis , or ophthalmomyasis, affects the conjunctival sac of the eye, and its pathogens in humans are the sheep gadfly, or the kruchak (Oestrus ovis), the bald gadfly (Rhinoestrus purpureus), and the tungsten fly. The latter carries the greatest danger, since its larvae are capable of completely destroying the tissues of the eye, making holes in its wall.

The intestinal myasis is localized in the intestines or the stomach of a person, the penetration of eggs or larvae occurs with contaminated food or other substances, for example, when a child licks contaminated objects (toys in a sandbox, etc.). The most common causative agent is
is a cheese fly, living in cheese, salted fish, except for it - different types of meat, house flies, fruit flies.

Symptoms of intestinal miasis include:

  • nausea;
  • vomiting;
  • severe abdominal pain;
  • hemorrhages - internal hemorrhages, while blood is excreted in the feces;
  • colitis;
  • signs resembling typhoid fever, weakness, pallor of the skin, diarrhea, slow pulse, white on the tongue, confusion.

Miase in mouth

Miase in mouth

Oral myases are diagnosed less often than others, they are characterized by parasitism of dipterous larvae in the oral cavity. More common in the tropical belt and third world countries in the countryside.

In children, the disease is particularly difficult, often fatal, because the larvae, eating tissue, provoke the addition of a secondary infection during the development of ulcers and inflammation, severe bleeding.

Risk factors are poor oral hygiene, purulent formations and open wounds in the oral mucosa, alcoholism, thumb sucking, severe pathologies, old age.

Miases in the mouth can be caused by the larvae of the sheep and bovine gadfly, meat, tungsten flies. The larvae affect not only the oral cavity, but also the lips, forming painful ulcers, fistulas, inflammation, swelling of tissues and fever.

Miaz treatment

Miasis is diagnosed by a detailed examination of the affected area with the help of lighting and a magnifying glass. The larvae are mobile and are located in the wound in whole colonies. To exclude the presence of ocular miasis, they are examined by an ophthalmologist.

Cavity forms of the disease (intestine, urogenital system) are detected by examining secretions and smears - feces, urine, vomit, and vaginal smear.

Treatment miaz carried out by removing the larvae from the affected area, for this use different methods:

  1. The infected site is washed with an antiseptic solution - furatsilina, potassium permanganate;
  2. A small amount of sterile oil is poured into the wound;
  3. Air is blocked by the causative agent, due to which the larvae come to the surface and can be captured with tweezers.

After that, the cleaned cavity is disinfected and an aseptic dressing is applied. If suppuration or inflammation occurs, use local antimicrobial agents and antibiotics for oral administration.

Oral myases are also treated by mechanical removal of the larvae, aseptic processing of the affected tissues, the use of antibiotics and the anti-parasitic drug Ivermectin.

In the treatment of intestinal miaz, gastric lavage, intestinal cleansing with laxatives and antiparasitic drugs are indicated.

In the urogenital system, the urethra is washed, and in the case of ocular larvae, special needles are extracted using anesthetic and antiseptic drops. Severe myase internals require surgery.

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