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Breast mastopathy: treatment, photo, signs and symptoms

The mammary gland is a unique formation in the female body. This is the only exocrine organ to study which has its own specialty - mammology. The fact is that diseases of the mammary gland can, starting unnoticed, in some cases turn into serious and life-threatening cancers.

A whole group of various pathological conditions and changes in the breast can be combined by the collective term “breast mastopathy”, but what is it and how to treat mastopathy? - After all, this group includes a variety of inflammatory, benign and malignant neoplasms and changes that have a different clinical picture.

In addition, under the mastopathy women often imply a number of unpleasant sensations in the chest, which are associated with the course of the ovarian-menstrual cycle. These include pain, a feeling of heaviness, possible discharge from the nipples.

But in medicine there is a precise definition of this condition.

Content

Breast mastopathy - what is it?

Breast mastopathy

Breast mastopathy is an initially benign breast disease in which the connective tissue basis of an organ, or stroma, grows.

As you know, iron consists of its own tissue, which produces milk. Glandular tissue is located in the form of islands that rest in the connective tissue "frame". The most common causes of changes in the breast are regular changes in the hormonal background of the female body.

But, despite the fact that due to the menstrual cycle changes are natural, the manifestations of mastitis in women are different.

There are many classifications of mastopathy, which are convenient to various specialists. One of the most commonly used is the combined clinical and morphological classification, which divides all formations into two types:

The first group does not assume the presence of nodes, it is characterized by uniform growth of either glandular (adenosis) or fibrous tissue (fibrous form). The mixed form is called fibroadenous diffuse mastopathy.

When the nodular, or focal form of mastopathy, nodular formations appear in the organ tissue, which can be represented by foci of nodular fibrosis (fibrocystic breast mastopathy).

In the event that the replacement of tissue with cysts is subsequently added to the foci of fibrosis, cystic mastopathy of the mammary glands occurs.

Mastalgia, or mastodynia, stands somewhat "apart." It is a common painful condition of the mammary gland with no signs of inflammation. This form often accompanies algodysmenorrhea (painful periods).

The causes of mastopathy

In addition to obvious causes leading to mastopathy, there are certain categories of risk. If you describe them in simple language, you can select:

  • Early onset of menstruation (menarche in 11 years and earlier), rapid establishment of the cycle;
  • Prolonged absence of the first pregnancy, childbirth, late first birth - 30 years and older;
  • Lack of breastfeeding, baby’s refusal from the breast;
  • Late onset of menopause (50 years or more);

In addition to these predisposing factors, there are also producing factors:

  • Violation of the ovarian-metallic cycle;
  • Chronic inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs: salpingitis, adnexitis , endometritis;
  • Abortion;
  • Stress states.

In the occurrence of various types of mastopathy, conditions that are characterized by a significant excess of estrogen and a lack of progesterone are of great importance. Almost all of these patients are seen by a gynecologist - an endocrinologist with such diseases as dysfunctional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, uterine myoma, or follicular ovarian cysts.

The first signs and symptoms of breast mastopathy

The first signs of breast mastopathy

Of great importance for the timely diagnosis and treatment of mastopathy is sanitary literacy of the population. A girl, a woman should understand - there are alarming first signs of breast mastopathy, with the appearance of which you need to immediately contact the antenatal clinic. These are the symptoms of debut disease:

  1. Incomprehensible discharge from the nipple. It does not matter what character they are, because they should not be at all;
  2. Changes in the skin of the nipple and areola (areola);
  3. The formation of seals in tissues;
  4. Discoloration of the skin (appearance, for example, of redness);
  5. Pain in the gland of any localization and duration;
  6. Change (increase) of venous pattern.

These "precursors", found at an early stage, can significantly help in the fight against the disease even before the development of the main clinical picture of the disease.

Symptoms of breast mastopathy

symptoms of breast mastopathy In addition to the above signs of onset of the disease, there is a stage of detailed clinical manifestations. Symptoms of breast mastopathy in this case may occur with the following symptoms:

  • Periodic pains that may be associated with the menstrual cycle;
  • The presence of a variety of cures and seals, while the nodules can be clearly palpable;
  • Changes in the volume, shape or position of the mammary glands.

Breast mastopathy, the symptoms and signs of which do not appear for a long time, after a short period, can immediately transform into an actively proceeding process, so you need to be vigilant.

Diagnosis and self-examination

Self-examination is the most important method of preventing mastopathy. His skills should be taught to every girl. Self-examination is carried out in calm conditions, in front of the mirror, standing. It is useful to repeat lying palpation, since there is a displacement of the tissues of the mammary glands.

Self-examination (as well as other types of examination) should be carried out at a time when the swelling of the glands is reduced. This usually occurs during the second week of the menstrual cycle.

The rules for self-examination of the mammary glands are as follows:

  • you first need to examine the glands with arms down, and then - with raised up;
  • then you need to inspect the chest for early signs of mastopathy (see above);
  • palpation is performed with a pad lining under the scapula, for convenience. The gland must be touched with the opposite hand;
  • one needs to feel slowly, without strong pressure and in three positions: holding the hand behind the head, to the side and along the body;
  • the direction of feeling is from the nipple outward and upward, then inward and downward to the sternum.

At the end of the examination, areas of the armpits, as well as supraclavicular fossae, are palpated for enlarged lymph nodes.

Methods of research of mammary glands in the medical institution

Modern research is painless, quick and safe. Mammography and breast ultrasound provides almost complete information. In difficult cases, a biopsy is done with a histological examination of the obtained tissue sample, and the level of hormones in the blood is examined.

Breast mastopathy treatment

There is a difference between the treatment of nodular and diffuse forms. As a rule, the therapy of diffuse form is conservative, and breast mastopathy, the treatment of which is conservatively ineffective, is subject to surgical treatment. Most often, this refers to nodal forms.

Surgical treatment consists of excision of the nodes, but this type of intervention is symptomatic, since it does not eliminate the causes of the disease, and it may be necessary to carry out repeated surgical interventions, with the growth of the nodes or their formation.

Therefore, the principles of conservative treatment are so important, without a knife and an operating table. These include:

  1. Treatment at the endocrinologist, the normalization of the hormonal levels of estrogen and pituitary hormones;
  2. Timely treatment of chronic inflammation of the female genital organs and the small pelvis;
  3. The correct selection of bra;
  4. Treatment of liver diseases;
  5. Prevention of breast injuries;

When choosing how to treat mastopathy, it is necessary to take into account the age of the patient, as well as the speed of changes occurring in the tissues of the breast.

Prevention of mastopathy

Prevention of mastopathy

The more a woman gives birth and breastfeeds, the less the risk of developing mastopathy and subsequent unpleasant diseases.

Modern prevention of mastopathy has achieved great success - and it can be said with confidence that a woman who observes and performs the following measures is free from sudden "unpleasant surprises" associated with the development of mastopathy:

  • regular ultrasound (annually);
  • mammography;
  • self-examination at least once a month.

In conclusion, I would like to answer the frequently asked question: what is better, mammography or ultrasound?

They complement each other, and each method has its advantages and disadvantages. So, mammography can be a little painful and still comes down to radiation exposure. But on the other hand, it is carried out very quickly, and a high-resolution result is displayed in your hands.

With ultrasound, the doctor can precisely examine the place that interests him, examine the lymph nodes. Radiation is absent, but the method takes a longer time. It is necessary, it is reasonable to combine both techniques, at least once a year each. This will ensure the timely diagnosis of almost any, even minor manifestations of mastopathy.

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