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Cervical and lumbar spine lordosis: treatment and symptoms

The human spine is a unique engineering construction of nature. Only a man walks on two legs, freeing limbs for work. Something similar was in two-legged dinosaurs, but they had a powerful tail, and the structure of the spine was completely different.

The task of the human spinal column is, in addition to the support function and the skeleton base, amortization. The main thing - do not "shake off" the skull and the brain located in it.

We are accustomed to the fact that there is nothing surprising in this. But try driving on a bumpy road at high speed on a cart with wooden wheels, iron-bound, and you will appreciate all the comfort of inflatable tires. Similarly, the spine. It has several impulse damping and amortization mechanisms:

  • arch of the foot;
  • physiological curves of the spine - lordosis and kyphosis;
  • intervertebral elastic discs.

What is lordosis? So called physiological curvature of the spine in the sagittal plane, the bulge facing backwards. Let us examine in more detail in this term, as well as in the causes of violation of the configuration of the spinal lordosis.

Content

Lordosis - what is it?

If you put a person in front of you, and then hold an imaginary plane so that this plane accurately divides the human body into left and right imaginary halves, then this plane will be the sagittal plane, from lat. Sagitta is an arrow. In the sagittal plane we will see the image of the spine "in profile".

Lordosis, what is it?

It is a bit like the mathematical symbol of the integral, or the Latin letter "S". The spinal column forms physiological curves: lumbar lordosis, then thoracic kyphosis, and then again cervical lordosis.

Lordosis is a physiological curvature of the spine, curved facing backwards. Normally, it happens in the lumbar and cervical spine.

These two lordosis are divided by the kyphosis of the thoracic region, which is a long arc, with a bulge facing anteriorly. Physiological curves are formed with the growth of the spine, and may vary depending on the violations of posture.

So, lordosis in children, as well as kyphosis, may be incomplete, curved in other planes, or, conversely, expressed excessively. With subsequent growth and development of persistent violation of posture occurs, which can cause various symptoms.

This change in physiological lordosis, in both children and adults, is also called pathological, or simply lordosis.

Cervical lordosis

Cervical lordosis

In this section, we will discuss the pathological deformation of the cervical lordosis. It can be either in utero arisen or acquired after birth. Acquired cervical lordosis occurs for the following reasons:

  • Various traumatic lesions of the cervical spine (dislocations, compression fractures, vertebral contusions);
  • Osteochondrosis and degenerative-degenerative processes in the intervertebral discs;
  • Autoimmune lesions of the cervical spine: ankylosing spondylitis (ankylosing spondylitis), rheumatoid arthritis;
  • Protrusions and disc herniation of the cervical spine with a violation of the integrity of the fibrous disc ring;
  • Inflammatory diseases of the vertebrae, for example, spondylitis (infectious, for example, of a tuberculous nature);
  • Chronic cervical muscle spasm (myofascial-tonic syndrome). Often accompanied by chronic inflammation and disc pathology, for example, osteochondrosis;
  • Malignant neoplasms, giving metastases to the bones and vertebrae, or located in close proximity, for example, tumors of the neck organs.

In some cases, talk about straightening physiological bending. If cervical lordosis is straightened, what does this mean? This suggests its flattening, and reducing the damping ability of the spinal column.

There are several factors that, not being the immediate causes, can "tip the scales" in the direction of the pathological lordosis. These include:

  • Overweight;
  • Osteoporosis , especially in postmenopausal women;
  • Various forms of endocrine pathology, for example, diabetes, hyperthyroidism ;
  • Bad habits such as smoking and alcohol abuse.

Sometimes even the rapid growth of the bones of the skeleton leads to lordosis, since soft tissues, including nervous tissue, as well as the feeding vessels, cannot “keep up” with the growth of the skeleton. Such lordosis is soon compensated, and all complaints disappear.

Classification of cervical spinal lordosis

In addition to the division into pathological and physiological, other options are possible for generalizing this manifestation of impaired posture. So, there are both primary and secondary versions of lordosis.

In the primary case, the cause lies directly in the spinal column. Various diseases of the vertebrae and ligaments of the cervical region lead to this.

In secondary lordosis, various diseases that develop at the beginning as predisposing to disorders, such as obesity or osteoporosis, are to blame.

According to the morphological characteristics distinguish hyperlordosis (enhanced) and hypolordosis (flattened or weakened).

Symptoms of cervical lordosis

cervical lordosis

The neck is a much more “thin spot” than the waist, due to the large number of conductive nerve bundles concentrated in a small space. Therefore, the most common signs in lordosis of the cervical spine are:

  • Characteristic change in posture. In this case, the shoulders fall down, the chest flattens, and the stomach begins to come forward. The neck is also pulled forward;
  • Chronic pain in the neck and shoulder blades, aching pain in the shoulders and spine. An important feature of this pain is the muscular component: in lordosis, the neck muscles are constantly tense, so they spasm, due to the accumulation of lactic acid. Most often this occurs with osteochondrosis;
  • Headaches, often rising from the cervical spine;
  • Functional disorders, such as loss of memory, attention and impaired performance, the appearance of noise in the ears;
  • Signs of sleep disturbance, loss of appetite, the possible connection of pain in the neck with increased blood pressure;
  • Attachment of focal neurological symptoms: decrease in sensitivity in the hands, for example, at the tips of the fingers, the appearance of a feeling of "crawling goosebumps", decrease in sensitivity in the hands and feet.

A few words should be said about the diagnosis of cervical lordosis. In classical cases, the diagnosis is made on the basis of characteristic complaints, as well as inspection data and instrumental diagnostic methods, among which the leading role is played by radiography of the cervical spine with functional tests (in the position of maximum flexion, and then the neck extension).

Lumbar lordosis

Lumbar lordosis

The lordosis of the lumbar spine is the “twin brother” of cervical lordosis, with only one characteristic circumstance: all the vertebrae of the lumbar spine are more massive, therefore, a more “rough” clinical picture is characteristic of the disease.

As in the case of the cervical region, the physiological bend in this case is formed very early, when the baby learns to sit properly. Initially, lumbar lordosis occurs as a mechanism for relieving the load on the spine.

In normal education, its apex occurs somewhere at the level of 3 or 4 lumbar vertebra.

Pathological lumbar lordosis occurs when, for example, calcium deficiency occurs in a growing body. This is the main reason for the lack of organic symptoms.

As with cervical varieties of pathological lumbar lordosis, there are both primary and secondary forms of it.

The causes of lumbar lordosis are quite consistent with the causes of the development of the same disorder in the cervical spine. Smoothed lordosis of the lumbar spine can be manifested by back pain, in the legs, and a change in posture.

Treatment of cervical and lumbar lordosis - drugs and methods

Treatment of cervical and lumbar lordosis

Treatment of lordosis of the cervical spine, like the lumbar, has much in common. So, you need to start with non-drug methods of posture correction, gradually increasing the therapeutic effect. In the case of aggravation, the appearance of pronounced pain syndrome, it is desirable to begin therapy in the first days with the introduction of drugs.

So, use the following means:

  1. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: meloxicam, ketotifen, ibuprofen as part of a combination of drugs;
  2. Analgesics (Ketanov, Zaldiar) with severe pain syndrome;
  3. Muscle relaxants of central action (Mydocalm, Sirdalud) with marked muscle spasm;
  4. Multivitamin preparations, especially group "B", mineral complexes containing calcium;

Non-drug treatments for lordosis imply a way out of an acute condition.

When relief or the phase of incomplete clinical remission is reached, acupuncture, physiotherapy (UHF, Amplipulse), magnetic therapy, the use of Lyapko hipplicators are used. Special Shantz collars are worn around the neck, which should be selected in size.

An important step is the spa treatment. Very well help to correct the lordosis of the cervical spine, underwater traction, shower - massage, balneological procedures, baths, including with radon, therapeutic gymnastics complexes.

Extremely good therapeutic and prophylactic effect has swimming, including with lumbar disorders.

In some cases, with marked disorders and ineffectiveness of conservative treatment, surgery is indicated. Most often, an additional reinforcement of the spinal column is created through the installation of metal implants for osteosynthesis.

Complications of lordosis

Both cervical and lumbar lordosis can cause a number of different complications, significantly weighting the course of the underlying disease. These include such conditions as the appearance of intracranial hypertension in cervical disorders, impaired sensitivity in the fingers, the appearance of focal neurological symptoms in the form of paresis and paralysis.

When lumbar localization, the appearance of radiculitis, signs of sciatica and compression neuropathies with a violation of the sensory and motor pathways. Perhaps even dysfunction of the pelvic organs.

Prevention

Here it is hardly possible to communicate something fundamentally new. Like other disorders of the musculoskeletal system, disorders of the physiological curves of the spine require an active lifestyle, the normalization of body weight, proper nutrition, as well as the rejection of bad habits.

The use of orthopedic pillows and mattresses, the rejection of soft beds and regular exercises that strengthen the muscular frame of the spine have a good effect.

For prophylaxis, a x-ray of the cervical or lumbar spine is recommended every 2 years with indications (pain, impaired function) for timely treatment.

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