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Rubella in children: symptoms and treatment, prevention, photo

Rubella is known to all as a childhood infection, but you can get sick in adulthood. Moreover, the disease of rubella in adults is harder and causes more complications than in young children.

Especially dangerous is rubella infection during pregnancy. Questions of prevention and treatment of rubella, as well as knowledge of its first symptoms, are very important for the prevention of undesirable consequences.

Content

Rubella - what is it? (a photo)

Rubella is an infectious disease caused by the Togavirus. It refers to childhood infections: the vast majority of patients diagnosed with rubella are children 1.5-7 years old.

Rubella - what is it

general photo of virus manifestations

The disease is manifested by a mild rash and minor catarrhal phenomena. It is possible to diagnose rubella by some specific signs and a blood test for IgG antibodies, which begin to be synthesized in the body 3-4 weeks after infection and indicate the formation of a relatively stable immunity (noticeably weaker 20 years after the disease or vaccination).

The virus is not very stable in the environment: it dies in 5-8 hours when exposed to ultraviolet radiation, temperature drops. However, the high contagiousness of the disease and the absence of any symptoms of rubella during the incubation period causes the rapid spread of infection in kindergartens and schools.

Among people unvaccinated or previously unwell rubella, the incidence rate reaches 90%. For vaccinated or ill people, a sick person is not a threat.

You can become infected with airborne droplets. In the children's team, infection is also possible through toys on which the saliva of a sick child fell. The risk of intrauterine infection with Togavirus of the fetus is very high, provided that the pregnant woman is ill.

The seasonality of the disease is as follows: in summer, rubella is practically not diagnosed, epidemic outbreaks are recorded during the period February-March-April.

Rubella initial stage - incubation period

Rubella initial stage

there were rashes, photo

The period from a rubella virus to a healthy organism to the first clinical manifestations (incubation) lasts 10-24 days. At this time, the pathogen is introduced through the mucous membrane of the throat (the ciliated epithelium of the nasal passages does not allow the virus to pass through) and enters the bloodstream, where it begins to actively proliferate.

It is during the incubation period of rubella in children attending kindergartens and schools that a healthy patient is infected. Although at this time there are no external manifestations of the disease, 1 week before the onset of skin rashes, the patient becomes infectious to others.

Onset of rubella is often confused with a cold disease: slight throat congestion, poor dry cough and nasal congestion (caused by swelling of the mucous membrane, no discharge), small hyperthermia (up to 37.5-38.0ºС).

Rubella symptoms in children

Rubella symptoms in children

photo 4

The situation is rapidly changing, and already for 2-3 days the patient has a mild rash that does not cause itching. Pink spots, not rising above the surface of the skin, first appear on the face and within 1-2 days spread throughout the body.

The maximum accumulation of spots is found on areas with delicate skin: the flexor surface of the hands, in the groin and on the buttocks, the lateral surfaces of the body. Simultaneously with rashes (or a little earlier), a specific sign is found - an increase in lymph nodes.

Specific signs of rubella:

  1. Enlarged occipital and posterior cervical lymph nodes are painless, not soldered to surrounding tissues;
  2. Eruptions in rubella never appear on the palms and soles of the feet, do not itch;
  3. The rash lasts from 2-4 days to 1 week and disappears without a trace, leaving no pigmentation or peeling;
  4. There may be spotted rash on the upper palate.

The patient remains infectious to others for another 7 days from the first appearance of the rash. At the same time, the period of skin eruptions is considered the most dangerous in terms of infection.

When the disease changes, the blood picture also changes - in general, lymphocytosis (an increase in lymphocytes) is observed against a background of leukopenia (a decrease in the total number of leukocytes), an increased level of plasma cells, and the ESR remains normal.

A 4-fold increase in the level of specific IgM antibodies in paired sera indicates an initial period and an acute course of rubella (the titer decreases upon convalescence). This fact is important in the diagnosis of erased and asymptomatic forms of the disease.

Usually, with the disappearance of the rash, the patient's condition improves markedly. Enlarged lymph nodes disappear after 1 month. After rubella, IgG in the blood test reaches a level of more than 10 U / ml, which indicates the presence of immunity.

Rubella in children

In childhood, rubella is quite easy. Symptoms of rubella in children in the initial stage of its development are accompanied by tearfulness, lack of appetite, and poor sleep. This is due to the fact that the virus releases substances that are toxic to the nervous system.

With the progression of the disease, conjunctivitis, tonsillitis and other inflammatory diseases of the respiratory organs are possible. However, the severe course of the disease is observed only in weakened children with low resistance.

The fewer rashes on the body of the child (the disease often occurs without rash), the easier the little patient tolerates rubella.

Rubella in adults - symptoms and features

Rubella in adults

photo rubella in adults, rash on the face

Symptoms of rubella in adults are more pronounced. As a rule, an adult organism reacts very violently to a virus. If a child can easily tolerate rubella on his feet, the adult person is put into bed for at least a week.

Often, patients develop high fever (up to 39 ° C), pain in the joints, lower back pain, severe headache and growing weakness. Often, the doctor fixes an increase in the spleen and liver during palpation, auscultation of the heart reveals a muffling of its tones.

Rubella during pregnancy

One of the easiest childhood infections - rubella - is very dangerous for pregnant women. The virus easily overcomes the placental barrier and can cause severe malformations in the fetus, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy.

The target, first of all, is the central nervous system, heart, organs of vision and hearing. A child born with congenital rubella syndrome (infected in utero), in addition to the above-mentioned abnormal organ development, is often diagnosed with diabetes, autism, and thyroid malfunction.

In this case, a child with SVK may be contagious to others for 1-2 years. In the later stages of pregnancy (13-16 weeks or more) the probability of developing birth defects is markedly reduced, but not completely excluded.

Another, no less dangerous consequence of the rubella disease of a pregnant woman is miscarriage and stillbirth. Every third pregnant woman who suffers from rubella has a spontaneous abortion, one out of ten gives birth to a dead child.

Every fifth baby born to a recurrent rubella in a woman during pregnancy dies in the neonatal period.

Rubella treatment - drugs and methods

Rubella treatment

Rubella does not require inpatient treatment. Patients with a severe form of the disease, serious comorbidity, are suspected of being hospitalized if they are suspected of having complications. Specific treatment of rubella in children and adults is also not carried out.

Medical complex includes:

  • Food - the predominance of protein foods (cottage cheese, kefir, eggs, low-fat meat / fish dishes). Nutrition fractional, 5-6 times a day in small portions. Be sure to drink at least 2 liters. fluid a day. Drinking mineral water (no gas) or rehydron is recommended.
  • Symptomatic treatment - antipyretic (Paracetamol, Nurofen), antihistamines (Suprastin, Claritin, Tavegil), antibiotics (only when complications occur). The most effective in terms of prevention of the syndrome of intravascular blood clotting Ascorutin.

The prognosis for rubella in children is usually favorable. However, we should not exclude the risk of complications - pneumonia, arthritis, meningoencephalitis, arthritis. Most often, the negative effects of the disease are found in adult patients.

Togavirus poses a serious danger to pregnant women and children with CRS, adolescents (possibly impaired fertility in girls and boys). Recurrent disease is extremely rare - in people of mature age with marked immunodeficiency.

Rubella prevention

Preventive measures are aimed at preventing the spread of infection and include active measures (vaccination) and regime recommendations.

  • Isolation of the patient for 1 week from the onset of rash.
  • Quarantine in institutions is not imposed. Medical observation of patients with unwell and unvaccinated contact with the patient. The administration of contact immunoglobulin is acceptable.
  • Vaccination according to the age schedule - in 1-1.5 years, in 6 and 14 years (non-diseased) of the same type (anti-feline) or combined (from rubella, measles, mumps). The vaccine only occasionally causes adverse effects - subfebrile, redness of the injection site, rash.
  • Immunity forms 3 weeks after vaccination.
  • Full exclusion of contact of pregnant women with a sick person. In the event of contact, repeat serology for 10–20 days (detection of asymptomatic flow). The introduction of immunoglobulin does not prevent the development of rubella in the period of gestation.
  • Sick women wishing to become pregnant (immunity to the disease is not confirmed by serological testing) are recommended to be vaccinated 3 months before the onset of the presumptive pregnancy.
  • Pregnant women suffering from rubella are often recommended to terminate a pregnancy in order to avoid having a child with serious developmental disabilities.
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