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Urticaria (urticaria) in adults: causes, symptoms and treatment

Urticaria is a form of dermatosis, accompanied by a nettle (urtikarny) rash on the mucous and skin surface of a person, caused by toxic-allergic genesis.

A good example of what urticaria looks like in adults - photo №1.

It looks like a hives (photo 1)

It looks like a hives (photo 1)

Photos of other manifestations of the disease, see below, in the "Types and symptoms."


Causes of urticaria

External and internal factors provoke the development of urticaria due to:

  • exposure to physical and mechanical injury;
  • the influence of chemical and pharmacological agents;
  • the action of allergenic foods;
  • internal pathological processes - in the gastrointestinal tract, in the functional of the nervous system and liver;
  • vegetative disorders;

The basis of the cause of urticaria is the process of biomultiplication of chemical compounds in the body, similar in their actions to the action of histamines, causing increased permeability of the vascular walls and telangiectasia (expansion) of capillaries on the skin. This causes the development of acute edema in the papillary dermis (skin) and the formation of bubble eruptions on it.

Allergens are - partially digested protein food, which has not lost its inherent allergenicity, accumulation of toxins from it in the intestine or present in low-quality food. The accumulation of harmful substances in the body and the manifestation of urticaria contribute to:

  • various diseases of the digestive tract (colitis);
  • functional renal pathology;
  • streptococcal and staphylococcal infection;
  • active substances of blood-sicking parasites and insects;
  • helminthiasis.

Symptoms of urticaria in adults, photos

Clinically, the signs and symptoms of urticaria manifest in a variety of variations. The most famous:

Acute urticaria — the overwhelming majority is manifested due to the body’s response reflex to food or drug antigens — due to blood transfusion (plasma transfusion), the introduction of antigens by vaccination.

Symptoms of such urticaria in adults appear very itchy, swelling above the skin with bloated blisters of any size and shape. Their discs are surrounded by fuzzy areas of scarlet with a glossy shine in the center.

Photo of the acute form of the urticaria

Photo of the acute form of the urticaria

The rash is able to unite into single foci, forming a rather large zone of skin lesions. The process is accompanied by a series of general disorders - irregular fever, manifestation of nettle fever (severe chills), and intestinal disorders.

The characteristic localization of a bubble rash is the skin of the trunk, arms, legs and buttocks. Localization is possible on the mucous membrane of the lips, palate, tongue, nasopharynx and in the laryngeal zone, which violates the respiratory and swallowing functions. Allergic rash continues for one, two hours. The disease lasts several days.

Due to mechanical irritation of the skin, an acute process of atopic urticaria develops. It is characterized by a linear form of rash and the absence of itchy symptoms. It appears as a consequence of dermographism, due to the defensive functions of the subcutaneous fatty tissue.

Angioedema urticaria (angioedema) - the sudden development of a giant allergic process with limited localization on the dermal surface or in the subcutaneous fat of the cheeks, eyelids or lips.

The affected skin surface acquires an elastic dense structure of a pale, pink, or red hue. Subjective sensations do not appear, sometimes there may be a burning sensation and a slight itch.

Angioneurotic form, photo 3

Angioneurotic form, photo 3

The duration of the swelling is small (up to 2-3 hours), but can last up to two, three days. Relapse is not excluded. Sometimes, angioedema (angioedema) is considered a manifestation of common urticaria.

But, if the development of edema occurs in the pharynx area - the development of a narrowing of its lumen (stenosis), which provokes suffocation (asphyxia), is possible.

The formation of puffiness in the area of ​​the eye threatens to shift the eyeball and impair visual function. In this condition, medical assistance is urgently needed.

Chronic urticaria recurrent nature - triggered by the long-term effects of chronic infection:

  • with ENT diseases;
  • salpingo-oophoritis (infectious inflammatory process in the uterine appendages);
  • with rotting hard dental tissue (caries);
  • due to impaired liver function, gastrointestinal system, etc.

The clinical course is paroxysmal, with the manifestation of minor focal areas of rash that can be localized on different parts of the body. Accompanied by:

  • asthenia (general weakness) increased temperature;
  • headaches and joint pains;
  • unbearable itchy symptoms;
  • insomnia and neurotic disorders.

Blood tests show a decrease in platelets and a quantitative increase in eosinophils.

Persistent urticaria in adults Urticaria resistant papular - in which the urticar rash, long on the skin surface, goes into a nodular (papular) stage of development. At the same time, the process of excessive thickening of the horny epidermal layer (keratosis) and dark velvety compaction (acanthosis) join the persistent limited dermal edema.

Dark brown nodules are localized in the folds of the folds of the limbs. More often sick female half of humanity. World medical luminaries consider this type of urticaria, the clinical symptom of prurigo, commonly called pruritus.

Phyto urticaria (solar) - included in the section of polymorphic dermatosis. It develops on the background of renal pathologies, an increase in reactive sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation, or on the background of porphyrite (a violation of the pigmentation process).

Solar urticaria, photo of symptoms

Solar urticaria, photo of symptoms

Skin areas that are not protected from the sun are covered with a rash. Typical seasonality of manifestations, with high activity of ultraviolet rays - in spring or summer. Prolonged sun exposure of the body can cause:

  • severe circulatory disorders in tissues and internal organs;
  • impaired respiratory function;
  • insufficient heart activity.

Is urticaria dangerous?

In the absence of a severe allergic reaction in the form of angioedema, in itself, the disease is not dangerous and is easily relieved. But, even after a course of treatment of urticaria in adults with drugs, the symptoms can manifest and develop a chronic form of the disease with frequent relapses.

Over 20% of patients may experience depressive disorders. In addition, the disease can be a symptom of cancer.

Treatment of urticaria in adults

Tactics of treatment of urticaria due to the identification and elimination of all factors of pathogenicity, leading to the development of allergic manifestations. Much attention is paid to the functional viability of the digestive tract and central nervous system.

Possible localizations of chronic infections are detected and treated, the action of allergenic foods and drugs is excluded.

When diagnosing helminths, a therapeutic deworming complex is carried out. The advisory reception of the neuropathologist and ENT of the doctor (otolaryngologist) is recommended. Only after this is the selection of funds from the urticaria.

Competent selection of drugs and compliance with all the recommendations of the doctor increases the chance of complete deliverance from the disease.

The goal of treatment of urticaria in adults with drug therapy is the relief of symptoms. Recommended:

  1. Prescription drugs sedative and antihistamine properties;
  2. Desensitizing therapy (calcium supplements);
  3. Detoxifying medicines (sodium nitrite).

Acute processes stop:

  • laxatives;
  • cleansing enemas;
  • diuretic drugs - "furosemide" or "theobromine".

Recovery of exchange processes is carried out:

  1. Iron deficiency drugs;
  2. Salicylates that relieve allergy symptoms;
  3. Vitamin therapy - B6-B12;
  4. Triosulphate preparations.

Severe course is stopped by steroid hormones (glucocorticosteroid drugs) and histaglobin ("Histaglobin-Triplex").

Perhaps self-treatment?

The decision about home treatment of urticaria is made by the doctor after a diagnostic examination. With the seeming harmlessness of the allergic process, it is able to manifest angioedema, so homemade self-treatment attempts are strongly not recommended.

It should be remembered - angiotecks ​​in the facial area or neck can be fatal, so treatment should be based on the knowledge of a professional. In addition, with such symptoms as in photo №3, the treatment of urticaria in adults at home is dangerous.

If the treatment, for any reason, is carried out at home, it should be agreed with the allergist, who will develop a regimen of medication and approve a plan for further monitoring the course of treatment and diagnostic examinations.

Frequently recommended home remedies, such as herbal baths or hormone ointments based on water-zinc, are not essential in treatment.

Need a diet for urticaria?

Urticaria in adults: symptoms and treatment, photo

Numerous studies of the course of various forms of urticaria in adult patients have shown the futility of the standard prescription of hypoallergenic diets to all patients, without exception, in various forms of the disease. Such an approach is recognized as a typical mistake.

The urticaria diet is only needed for patients with an acute form of the disease. Moreover, it is excluded from the diet, only that food, the allergenicity of which is proved in the process of research, or a clear connection is noticed. In other cases, the restriction of the diet is impractical.

There is a proven fact of the harm of alcohol even in small quantities, with any type of urticaria.

In exceptional cases, with a large motivation of victims, the diet is appointed for a period of not more than a month. The patient should keep a diet diary and compare the body's response to food.

If there is uncertainty in any product, it is possible to reduce its allergenicity by freezing, boiling, peeling.

The basis of the diet should be:

  • porridges on the water;
  • cereal and vegetable soups with olive oil;
  • baked apples;
  • kefir, yoghurts and compotes.

From the strong coffee and tea is better to refuse. The rapid removal of allergens from the body contributes to the use of large amounts of water (at least 2-3 liters per day).

Urticaria prevention measures

Not tricky and numerous rules will help prevent the development of urticaria;

  1. Timely treatment of gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases;
  2. Treatment of chronic diseases of infectious nature;
  3. Balanced diet;
  4. Elimination of allergic provocative factors.

Urticaria on ICD 10

In the international classification of diseases urticaria is:

Class XII. Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue

L50-L54 - Urticaria and Erythema

L50 - Urticaria

  • L50.0 Allergic urticaria
  • L50.1 Idiopathic urticaria
  • L50.2 Urticaria due to low or high temperature
  • L50.3 Dermatographic urticaria
  • L50.4 Vibrating urticaria
  • L50.5 Cholinergic urticaria
  • L50.6 Contact urticaria
  • L50.8 Other urticaria
  • L50.9 Urticaria, unspecified

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