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Measles in children - symptoms and treatment, prevention, photo

What it is?

Measles is one of the representatives of acute highly contagious viral infections, characterized by inflammation reactions in the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, conjunctiva and respiratory organs, accompanied by very high temperature indicators, intoxication symptoms, spotted and papular rash (see photo).

The causative agent of the disease is a filterable, negligibly small varion, belonging to the Myxovirus family. It does not have high resistance in an open environment and quickly dies outside the body.

A child can become infected with measles by contact with the carrier of the infection at the very peak of his infectiousness, a few (3-4) days before the onset of the rash.

measles photo

Transmission occurs by aerosol through mucus or droplets of saliva - when talking, coughing, sneezing. In the same room, or even throughout the apartment building, the pathogen can move with the air, through drafts, or move through the exhaust pipes.

  • The infection is not transmitted through objects and third parties.
  • Babies under 6 years of age are more susceptible to measles, but if a person has not been vaccinated on time, he risks “catching up” the infection in any period of his life.
  • Infants up to six months get sick very rarely, as they are protected by the mother's immunity.

After the virus enters the mucous structures of the body, the epithelium is introduced into the cells, where the virus multiplies rapidly, causing their destruction and death. Caught in the blood, millions of virions spread throughout the body, settling in the most comfortable areas for themselves - in the reticuloendothelial system.

The mucous membranes of the respiratory system, mouth, conjunctiva, gastrointestinal system are affected, sometimes the virus settles in the mucous structure of the brain tissue, causing the development of specific measles encephalitis.

Content

Signs and symptoms of measles in children photo

measles symptoms in children photo

measles symptoms in children photo 2

Signs of measles in children photo

photo 3

The course of the disease in childhood is characterized by a cyclical rhythm of manifestation, depending on the stages of the disease, successively replacing one stage of the course of the other.

Latent period

A rather long latent asymptomatic period, from one and a half to two, sometimes up to three weeks, precedes the bright manifestation of measles symptoms in a child.

The first signs of a measles infection in a child are:

  • pyretic fever with excessively high temperatures;
  • cough, dry and obsessive;
  • a large number of discharge from the nasal cavity (mucous membranes in the initial period, and turning into mucopurulent discharge);
  • voice weak and hoarse;
  • dilation of blood vessels in the eyes.

Babies often develop photophobia, eyelid swelling and scleral infection with purulent secretions. The child is lethargic, tearful and restless, does not sleep well and eats. Intoxication symptoms manifest vomiting reflex, diarrhea, pain symptoms in the abdomen.

Symptoms of the catarrhal stage of the disease

The catarrhal period is very short, up to four days. Symptom characteristic of the initial stage of measles, expressed in children by the manifestations, is added to the general signs:

  • migraine attacks;
  • inflammatory processes in the airways;
  • copious nasal discharge;
  • at the beginning of a rare, but by the end of the third day, increasing cough;
  • constant scanty sputum accompanied by painful, scratching symptoms in the throat;
  • sharp eye pain in bright light;
  • possible addition of tonic convulsions and gag reflex, with severe manifestation of the disease, or a slight fever and a slight cough, with an erased form.

At the end of the catarrhal stage, a characteristic sign of measles often appears - whitish eruptions surrounded by slight redness on the mucous surfaces inside the lips, inner walls of the cheeks and gums.

Korevy signs at the stage of rash

Symptoms of the catarrhal stage of the disease

Symptoms of measles in a child at this stage, manifested by the first rash on the fourth or fifth day of infection and lasts up to four days.

Characteristics of the rash due to the manifestation of syndrome exanthema rashes on the background of the prevailing symptoms - the maximum manifestation of intoxication symptoms, high fever and catarrhal symptoms.

In the catarrhal stage, measles does not look particularly pronounced in the first two days. The body of children is slightly hyperemic. Exanthem spots (characteristic Koplik syndrome) appear on the cheeks, and the looseness of the mucous layer is noted on the inner walls of the cheeks.

But the intoxication symptoms, in the first couple of days of rash, is most pronounced. The usual signs of intoxication are associated with pathological changes in the vascular and cardiac systems, characterized by:

  • heart palpitations;
  • hypotonic signs;
  • tonsillo-cardiac syndrome;
  • heart rhythm disorders;
  • dystrophic lesions in the heart muscle;
  • the development of oliguria.

An important feature of the syndrome of exanthema formation is the gradual spreading of lesions. Their first manifestations are noted in the ear zones, on the skin of the nose. On the 1st day, the rash covers the entire skin on the face and neck, spreads over the shoulders, and passes to the skin of the chest.

On the 2nd day, the rash completely covers the torso and upper arms. By the fourth day, it is already observed over the entire skin surface of the limbs. It is small spotted or papular. Over a short period of time, the elements of the rash increase, merging into spots of arbitrary shape of various sizes. At the same time, the skin background does not change.

The face of a sick child acquires a characteristic look - puffiness, swelling of the nose and eyelids, dryness and cracking on the lips and the formation of redness in the sclera of the eyes.

Treatment and prevention of measles in children After one, two weeks, the eruptions of the sick baby pass into the pigment stage, caused by the darkening of the skin rashes. In fact, the beginning of this stage is already starting from the third day of the rash and continues in stages, according to the formation of the rash.

Pigmented spots do not change their bluish color when they press on the skin or they stretch it. Sometimes, this process ends with a small scaly exfoliation.

Signs of a phased eruption and the same phased transition to the pigmentation phase are the “calling card” of measles infection, when the rash on the skin of the upper part of the body is already in a state of pigmentation, and its lower part is still at the stage of intense eruptions.

This feature of the disease is very significant in the diagnosis and treatment of measles in children, as it greatly facilitates the identification of the disease, allowing it to be distinguished from similar diseases accompanied by exanthema.

At the pigmentation stage, if the disease proceeds without complications, the child’s condition quickly stabilizes - temperature indices normalize, sleep and appetite are restored, the manifestation of catarrhal symptoms gradually decreases and after a week, one and a half - disappear completely.

Features of measles in babies

  • In infants, measles, the catarrhal stage is shortened to two days, but its complete absence is also possible, or its severity is weak.
  • The duration of the rash is also shortened to two days. The syndrome of intoxication is sometimes manifested in the form of vomiting.

Spotted and papular rash appears in stages. In size, it is small, or medium in size. Not bright and not plentiful. The pigmentation period is also shortened; it can last up to a week.

As a result of a decrease in immunity, the body is weakened and for a long period the babies retain measles anergy (increased susceptibility to infection).

In young children, complications of bacterial genesis in the form of pneumonia or purulent inflammatory processes in the ear are often noted. In this age group, measles infection can be combined with another viral or bacterial infection. Not uncommon and signs of intestinal dysfunction in the form of frequent diarrhea, possibly with mucous inclusions.

In children after 6 months, the disease manifests itself in the usual acute forms of classic measles.

Treatment and prevention of measles in children, drugs

Treatment and prevention of measles in children, drugs

When measles symptoms are found in children, treatment and prevention of the disease are given great attention in order to prevent serious complications.

Methods of treatment include - drug, etiotropic, etiopathogenetic, symptomatic and additional therapy, hygiene measures and alternative methods.

When pharmacological treatment prescribed drugs to relieve measles symptoms, and etiotropic treatment due to:

  • Irrigation procedures of the mouth, eye drops and nasal irrigation with RNAase preparations. If the disease is severe, intramuscular injection.
  • Preparations of recombinant interferon - "Viferon", Reaferona "," Realdirona "or" Interlok ".
  • In purulent conjunctival processes, instilled with Albucidus.
  • The relief of various nasal secretions is carried out by means of drops of the type “Galozalin” or “Farial”, the discharge with purulent inclusion is treated by laying an ointment, which consists of antibiotics.
  • When coughing, drugs are used that have antitussive action - "Glycodin", "Alex-Plus", "Bronhotsin", "Glycodin", "Pektussin" and Altea root.

Antibiotics

With a simple form of the disease, antibiotics are not recommended for babies. They are prescribed only in the case of the development of chronic pathologies or with pronounced signs of bacterial complications. Older kids need antibiotics for obvious complicated processes. Penicillin preparations of the type “Rulida”, “Tsifatoksima”, “Oxacillin” are prescribed.

In the period of acute flow and pigmentation, microelements and multivitamins are necessary.

Desensitization treatment is carried out if necessary - “Claritin” or “Tavegil”.

Relieve the condition of the baby can be simple hygienic measures:

  • repeated washing of eyes and removal of pus crusts with boiled warm water;
  • frequent lubrication of cracked lips with regular fresh butter or sea buckthorn;
  • clean the spout and remove crusts from it using oil mixtures (peach oil) and solutions
  • rinse your mouth with warm boiled water and air the room.

What else to treat measles?

Alternative treatment is based on basic therapy with the use of "Enhistole", drops of "Limfomiozot", candles "Viburkola", eye drops of "Okulokheel", in a dosage according to age and with an individual course of treatment.

The use of additional therapy due to the protracted course of the disease. It provides for the appointment of a tablet form of the drug "Traumeel", injectable solutions of "Echinacea", nasal spray "Euphirbium", with catarrhal signs, "Sore throat", with symptoms of sore throat or pharyngitis.

When etiopathogenic and symptomatic therapy is prescribed treatment corresponding to the pronounced symptoms. Antibacterial therapy is carried out. Appointed antipyretic, anticonvulsant, detoxification and vitamin preparations.

About prevention

The best prevention of measles in a child is the immunization of children, and an important criterion is its correct timing, this is one year old child and six years old.

The basis of vaccination is the process of artificially creating an immune response to infections, through the introduction into the body of the protein components of bacteria and viruses that cause the development of infectious processes.

Immune memory is the "registration" of the undesirable microorganism and when it is re-injected into the body, it is recognized and destroyed.

The prognosis of the disease in children with measles vaccine is favorable, and the risk of developing complicated processes from the vaccine is negligible and not comparable to the possible consequences for those babies who are not vaccinated.

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