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Explanation of analyzes

What is colposcopy of the cervix and how is it performed?

Many women are prescribed a colposcopy procedure. This is due to its important diagnostic value. This type of research helps to identify a number of changes at the initial stage of development of pathological processes on the cervix. Currently, the procedure is carried out with the help of modern equipment, which allows to obtain the most reliable results.


What is colposcopy

Colposcopy is a method for studying the inner walls of the vagina, as well as the vulva and cervix using an optical device that helps identify even the smallest changes in the epithelium lining the organ. To date, the procedure is carried out in several ways. The first one is standard, it includes the use of a microscope. The second is almost the same, but an additional video device is used, which allows to reproduce the picture of the study on the monitor screen.


Kolposkop - optical device, which was invented in 1925, but improved recently

The method of colposcopy allows you to identify changes in blood vessels and abnormal cells, which may be precursors to malignant processes.

What is colposcopy - video

Why and what doctors are conducting this study

Colposcopy is prescribed for a detailed examination of the cervix and in the case when there are controversial points that require an accurate diagnosis. The procedure is a qualitative differential method of research, which helps to identify growth of the epithelium, the presence of polyps and other defects of the mucous membrane. The study is conducted only by a gynecologist.

The principle of the colposcope

The aim colposcope consists of a binocular optical device that helps to obtain a three-dimensional picture with the help of an enlarged image. The light source on the head of the device allows you to view the cervix in detail and not to miss even the slightest changes. Replaceable eyepieces contribute to the gradual magnification of the image.

The light source is directed to the area of ​​the mirror, which is installed in the vagina. In this case, the doctor adjusts the angle of inclination of the device in order to better examine the mucous membrane.

Modern video colposcopes are equipped with a special camera that helps to get even more accurate data and save them for further study.

Kolposkop - optical device

Kolposkop - optical device that allows to obtain reliable data on the state of the cervix and the inner walls of the vagina

Types of colposcopy

This procedure is of two types: simple and extended. The first allows you to consider the vessels and tissues, the presence of polyps, scars and erosions. Unlike the second method does not imply the use of additional solutions and tools. Extended colposcopy helps to get much more information and is performed using reagents. The main ones are:

  • Lugol solution;
  • vinegar;
  • iodine and potassium.

During the extended colposcopy, a thin probe is also used. The doctor pushes them into areas that seem suspicious to him. If, as a result of this action, the tissue begins to bleed, then we can talk about a malignant tissue degeneration. With the help of reagents, the doctor processes the pathological areas and looks at the reaction. Normal tissues do not change color or (in the case of the Lugol solution) turn brown. Pathological zones acquire a light shade.

Using extended colposcopy, it is very easy to determine the initial stages of endometrial malignant degeneration.

Colposcopy of the cervix

Colposcopy of the cervix allows you to identify areas of epithelial changes

Indications for the procedure

The expediency of this method can be determined only by a doctor. If during a gynecological examination a specialist has any suspicion of any pathology, he additionally offers the patient a colposcopy. Indications for the procedure are also the following complaints:

  • lower abdominal pain;
  • bleeding outside menstruation;
  • pain during intercourse;
  • menstrual disorders;
  • purulent discharge from the genital tract.

Using colposcopy can be identified:

  • the presence of genital warts on the walls of the vagina;
  • cervical erosion;
  • foci of endometriosis (pathological proliferation of endometrial tissue);
  • the initial stages of malignant tissue degeneration;
  • atypical and dilated vessels;
  • inflammatory processes in the cervical canal;
  • uterine myoma;
  • endometrial polyps.

Colposcopy is often performed several months after an abortion and other gynecological operations. This method allows you to determine the complications after interventions at an early stage of development.

Contraindications to the procedure

Colposcopy is contraindicated in the first 1.5 months after childbirth, abortion and other gynecological interventions: cauterization of cervical erosion, endometrial curettage, etc. An advanced type of procedure is not recommended for women with individual iodine intolerance.

Can colposcopy be performed during pregnancy?

This procedure is not contraindicated during pregnancy. It will not only bring harm, but also allow the doctor to identify possible pathologies that may interfere with natural delivery. Colposcopy is performed on any period of pregnancy. The only contraindication in this case may be a partial dilation of the cervix.

Is the procedure done during menstruation?

During the period of menstruation, the procedure is not carried out, since it is not possible to obtain reliable data during this period. The spotting will prevent inspection of the cervix and cervical canal. In addition, the possibility of conducting research with the help of reagents is lost.


Preparation for colposcopy involves compliance with the following rules:

  1. Refrain from sexual intercourse for two days before the procedure.
  2. Do not use douching. You can only wash the external genitals with water.
  3. Do not use vaginal suppositories and creams the day before.
  4. Do not resort to the procedure in the presence of abundant bleeding or inform the doctor in advance.

It is better to resort to the procedure 2 days after the end of menstruation. This day of the cycle is the most favorable for colposcopy. Other special training is not provided.

4 important facts - video

How is the procedure

Colposcopy takes, as a rule, no more than 20 minutes. The patient lies in a gynecological chair, the doctor sets the mirror in the vagina. Then turns on the instrument and directs the lamp. First, there is a visual inspection and preliminary identification of pathological areas. Then using a solution of Lugol or acetic acid, the doctor treats the cervix using a cotton swab and tweezers.

After waiting a few minutes, the gynecologist evaluates the obtained picture and writes the data to the patient's card. If an area is stained unevenly, the doctor may repeat the test. If atypical zones are detected, a specialist may optionally prescribe a biopsy. This procedure consists of taking a small amount of tissue for microscopic examination.

At the same time, it is possible to detect cancer cells, areas of hyperplasia and determine the structure of the endometrium. The biopsy is performed under local anesthesia. With the help of special long forceps, the doctor cuts off a small piece of fabric and, if necessary, applies a self-absorbable suture.

A biopsy is performed only if there is evidence: erosion with eversion, large polyps, bleeding scars.

Pathological cervix

Pathological cervix, which is diagnosed during colposcopy

Does it hurt colposcopy

The procedure is completely painless. There may be minor discomfort during the procedure, as the mirror presses against the walls of the vagina. Colposcopy is not traumatic. If it is performed by an experienced doctor, then no consequences will arise as a result.

What not to do after the procedure

After a colposcopy, a woman can continue to do her usual activities. However, it is better to abstain from intercourse for one day. Physical activity is not contraindicated. After the procedure it is advisable not to douche and not to use vaginal tampons and candles on this day.

Decryption and results

In conclusion, the following parameters should be:

  1. The cervix: pink, smooth, abnormal cells were not detected. If the doctor indicates uneven color and structure, then, as a rule, explains what are the pathological zones. These can be polyps, erosion, endometriosis, endocervicitis.
  2. When staining with Lugol's solution, atypia areas were not detected. If some zones differ in shade, then this indicates the presence of pathologies.
  3. Vascular pattern without features. With changes, the doctor explains the nature of the atypia. Expansion of the vessel, changing its contour.
  4. Transformation zones are normally present in every woman. This means a transition from one type of epithelium to another. The norm is considered a transformation zone of 1. 2 and 3 types require additional diagnostics.
  5. Normally, the cervix is ​​lined with stratified squamous epithelium. If it is detected cylindrical, then this indicates the presence of ectopia.

As a result of the study, a diagnosis can be made:

  1. Polyp. Formed from the endometrium. It does not pose a danger to life, but must be removed, as it may bleed when injured.
  2. Endometriosis. It is a proliferation of the endometrium, caused by hormonal disruption. The amount of progesterone decreases, and estrogen increases, stimulating tissue growth. Subject to compulsory treatment, as endometriotic foci are able to grow into the deeper layers of the uterus. The process is benign.
  3. Erosion. May be true and false. In the first case, a significant pathological area (similar to a wound) is present on the cervix. Its edges are clear, it begins to bleed on palpation. False ectopia or pseudo-erosion of minor size, passes without treatment.
  4. Endocervicitis. The inflammatory process in the cervical canal occurs with the introduction of pathogenic microflora. It is important to identify the pathogen. It can be both bacterial and viral infection. Pathology is subject to compulsory treatment.

In a biopsy, the doctor indicates the localization of the modified area with a special designation in hours. Deciphering is very easy. If, for example, erosion is at 6 o'clock, it means that the pathological area is located in the lower half of the neck, approximately in the center (orientation on the usual dial).

Possible consequences

If all rules are observed, there should be no consequences after colposcopy. There may be a slight amount of brown discharge. This is not a sign of pathology, but simply iodine, which was used during the procedure. For some time, a pulling pain in the lower abdomen and vagina may be present. Such unpleasant symptoms go away already on the second day.

Spotting may be in the presence of erosion, endometriosis and scarring on the neck, this is due to the sensitivity of the pathological zones to any even minor impact.

Patient Reviews

Two months after the first birth, on a scheduled examination, the doctor found a very large erosion and gave a direction for colposcopy of the cervix. In the clinic at the place of residence it was possible to do it for free, but to this place I had a persistent prejudice, and I signed up for a private clinic. Everything went very quickly, in 10 minutes, including dressing-undressing and filling in papers. I was even surprised that colposcopy took so little time. I did not feel any pain or any unpleasant sensations, except for a slight tingling during the treatment with iodine. The doctor talked with me during the examination, told me what she saw inside, I asked her questions, the impressions of the reception were only positive. The only thing that bothered me after that was a slight discharge of brown thanks to iodine during the first 24 hours. Cervical erosion, though not the first time, was completely cured. Colposcopy practically does not require preparation, but before the procedure it is necessary to refrain from sex and on the day of the procedure do not insert candles or tablets into the vagina so as not to smear the results of the study. That's all I wanted to tell you about this procedure. If you are shown colposcopy, do not overload with a visit to the doctor. This is not painful and fast, and the results are of great importance in further diagnosis. Someone might say that it is a little expensive, but 800–1000 rubles is not the money to risk their health. remember - you need yourself healthy!



The procedure is almost the same as usual inspection, as usual a mirror, iodine is applied to the cervix with a large forceps, I did not know whether the vinegar was. ABSOLUTELY NOT SICK. I did not feel anything at all, although I have a high pain threshold. Then the doctor brings a large microscope and, without touching something, considers it. In our backwater, neither video nor photo colposcopy is provided. According to my feelings no more than 5 minutes passed. The doctor asked if there was erosion, I replied that I was not, but there is. In the diagnosis of endocervicitis.



Inviting me to a special room for colposcopy, the doctor told me to undress as well as for a regular examination, having put a diaper on the gynecological chair. While she filled out the paper, I obediently did everything and sat down on the chair and began to pester her with my questions, because I did not have time to read the colposcopy reviews, but it was scary)) When asked how long the colposcopy procedure lasts ?, the gynecologist answered: no, ten minutes And the question is it painful to do colposcopy? I was pleased with her answer: as a routine inspection, do not be afraid. Well, in fact, of course, it was slightly different from the usual examination, but it really didn’t hurt .. She inserted a mirror with a dilator, fixed it, then put it on the cervix with IODA and VXIN))) This so-called test, thanks to which all kinds of malignant tumors are revealed . The doctor said that if the cells of the mucosa are healthy, then they should turn dark brown, and if something went wrong, the color of the tissues will not change, which will reveal unhealthy areas. Then she brought the colposcope close to the vagina and began to examine it. I thank God everything was painted. The gynecologist pulled out a mirror, from which iodine flowed out onto the diaper, and when putting on shorts and on them (((So advice: take a diaper and underwear so that it is not a pity to part with it ... Very little burned in the cervix of the uterus, barely perceptible. But it’s not painful at all. I heard that some painful sensations are experienced, but this is only if they additionally take (roughly speaking, “pinch off”) a small piece of fabric for even more serious research. But here everything is just to prepare yourself for a little pain, you can just ask gineko Governor: The study will be a biopsy or not the way, the procedure can not be done during menstruation, the most favorable period is at the end of three days after the end of menstruation and 2 days to conduct sexual rest (ideally)?.

FIX idea


In fact - I somehow was not located, lying on a chair, staring at the actions of the doctor. I studied the ceiling, or just closed my eyes. Yes, I caught a glimpse of some type of microscope large, some tongs with cotton ... uzhos))) That's all. If you do not know that there will be some special procedure, you will not notice anything. It did not hurt either during or after the procedure. Perhaps this was due to the fact that my erosion was harmless and did not require treatment. It only needs to be watched - this was the conclusion I was given. Feels from colposcopy. Girls, the same inspection! Here you are, rejoice in the chair? Hardly. A bit uncomfortable, unpleasant ... but in fact that's all. As they say, three unpleasant minutes and go on. So it turned out. Price issue. I repeat - I did in a paid medical center. It cost 600 rubles! Exactly the same amount they just inspection! As if the situation was in a free hospital, I can not say. In general, if you suddenly hint about colposcopy, do not worry and do not be afraid. It just sounds like something ... scientifically)) God bless you!



Colposcopy is an important diagnostic procedure aimed at identifying precancerous diseases and serious violations of the integrity of the endometrium, which can later be transformed into dangerous pathologies. The procedure does not take a lot of time, but in many respects wins before the standard research.


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