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Explanation of analyzes

Colpitis: symptoms and treatment in women, causes and types of colpitis

What it is? Colpitis is an inflammation of the vaginal walls due to the predominance of pathogenic microorganisms. The condition occurs as a result of a disturbance in the composition of the permanent microflora.

Women are more often ill during the reproductive period, the exact etiology is unknown, but provoking factors can be either a disorderly sexual life or an excessive passion for hygienic syringing.


Colpitis in gynecology - what is it?

Colpitis in gynecology

Colpitis in gynecology is the general concept of vaginal diseases, in which pathogenic bacteria or fungi (candida) replace a useful microflora. Not all species are contagious, for example: atrophic colpitis and bacterial vaginosis .

Other, specific, trichomoniasis , chlamydosis , are transmitted in intimate proximity (STD). Colpitis in men does not exist, because it is a disease of female organs, and the male sex is a carrier of pathogens.

Most often in gynecological practice, colpitis is understood as a lesion of the vagina, but inflammation can also pass to the external genitalia. Although the disease affects women more often, girls before the period of hormonal adjustment are also vulnerable to pathology.

This is explained by the thinness of the walls of the vagina, which are not yet protected by the estrogenic background, so any friction and excessive effects in this area cause inflammation of the vaginal walls and external organs.

Types and classification of colpites

The disease is classified according to the current, the type of pathogen and the mode of transmission.

With the flow:

  • Acute vaginitis (colpitis);
  • Chronic type of flow.

By type of pathogen:

  • Specific;
  • Nonspecific.

The first include pathogenic microbes, sexually transmitted (mycoplasma, trichomonads, chlamydia, ureaplasma).

The predominant majority consists of the following types:

  1. Trichomonas colpitis is a lesion of the vagina with Trichomonas. Characteristic symptoms - fetid odor, frothy greenish discharge .
  2. Chlamydial vaginosis - is asymptomatic or burning with urination and an unpleasant odor.
  3. Candidiasis (thrush) - violation of the microflora of the vagina with the subsequent reproduction of fungi of the genus Candida. Yeast colpitis is manifested curdled deposits on the walls and eroding secretions with a sour smell. It also occurs after prolonged use of antibiotics without protection by antifungal agents.
  4. Atrophic colpitis - symptoms are associated with vaginal dryness , which occurs as a result of decreased estrogen secretion in the postmenopausal period. Reducing humidity leads to the growth of pathogenic flora. It is shown by scanty grayish-pale discharge and unpleasant vaginal odor.

Causes of colpitis

Disbalance of the microflora is facilitated by the use of antibacterial agents, uterine disease (myoma, endometritis), and improper hygiene. A lot of provoking factors made vaginitis the most common problem among women's diseases. Patients of all ages are often puzzled: What is it, colpitis in gynecology is understood as a hygiene issue or as an infectious disease? The causes can be both factors simultaneously.

Colpitis occurs when a decrease in the number of beneficial microorganisms, which are permanent inhabitants of the vagina. Some types of microorganisms can be transmitted during sexual intercourse, these are specific pathogens ( mycoplasma , chlamydia, trichomonas).

The disease can manifest itself with improper hygiene, excessive syringing or disorderly, with a frequent change in partners, a sexual life. Also the development of colpitis is promoted by intrauterine spirals, contraceptives and pregnancy.

To cure yeast colpitis, you need to treat all partners, but the sexual transmission is not yet proven.

Symptoms of colpitis in women

Symptoms of colpitis in women

Symptoms of the disease depends on the type of flow: acute or chronic. If the symptoms of acute colpitis in women are pronounced and cause not to postpone visit to the gynecologist, then chronic - draw a scant little picture.

Symptoms of acute colpitis:

  • Sudden pain, itching, burning;
  • Allocation of the syphilis, pus or mucus;
  • Hyperemia of the walls, swelling, tenderness when viewed.

The severity of symptoms depends on the immune background of the organism and the type of pathogen. With Trichomonas Colpitis discharge foamy, there is a fishy smell, with yeast - the raids have a curdled color. The products of the vital activity of Trichomonas, together with green fetid secretions, produce gas bubbles, which are specific for this species.

Progression of the disease leads to the defeat of the urinary tract - it is accompanied by burning during urination and the transition of the infection to the internal genitalia.

Atrophic colpitis differs not only in symptoms but also in treatment. In women of childbearing age, it does not occur because it is caused by a hormonal imbalance that reduces the secretion of the protective film of the vagina. Symptoms of it are meager, as well as secretions, which acquire the appearance of a gray mucous mass with a characteristic smell of vaginal exudates.

Chronic colpitis occurs when not completely cured acute disease. This may be due to self-medication. Symptoms subsided, and the inflammation gradually shifts to the fallopian tubes and endometrium.


Diagnosis consists of the collection of anamnesis data (questioning), visual examination by mirrors, laboratory research. Upon examination, the increased blood filling of the vaginal walls is visualized, the mucosa bleeds when touching, the pus fills the posterior fornix.

Cottage cheese plaque (with candida colpitis) is removed severely, leaving behind a hemorrhage. Before taking antibacterial drugs from the external genitalia, neck, urethra take a swab for culture .

Determine the type of pathogen - this is important for choosing a method of treatment. In addition, an ultrasound examination and colposcopy (endoscopic diagnosis) are prescribed.

Colpitis treatment in women

Colpitis treatment in women

Treatment of colpitis in women is preceded by a thorough examination, after determining the type of disease, a complex therapeutic regimen is prepared. In general, it can be described as follows:

  1. Use of antibiotics that have the greatest sensitivity to the identified pathogen;
  2. Use of fortifying agents, immunostimulants;
  3. Local treatment of external organs and syringing of the vagina with antiseptics;
  4. Candles for the treatment of colpitis (terzhinan, metranidozole, hexicon, polyginac) are used only for women, this method is not applied at prepubertal age;
  5. Compliance with diet, you need to exclude from the diet products that affect the pH of the vagina (alcohol, spicy food).

Control of treatment is carried out by laboratory method. A second smear is taken after the menstruation on day 3, and in girls and women after 55 - at the end of the course.

Colpitis in pregnancy

Disease not only causes additional inconveniences for pregnant women, but also a direct threat to the bearing and development of the fetus. An ascending infection affects the internal reproductive organs, infects the amniotic fluid.

Colpitis reduces the immunity of a pregnant woman and causes a failure of the hormonal background. Treatment should be under the control of a gynecologist, since not all drugs are acceptable for women during pregnancy.

Statistics are as follows: colpitis is sick ~ 80% of pregnant women.

In the first trimester, infection of the embryo and miscarriage of the fetus is possible.

Consequences and complications

The disease does not represent diagnostic difficulties, the methods of effective treatment are also developed. But neglected, untreated forms have serious consequences and complications. They are dangerous because the infection spreads along the ascending paths, and passes to the endometrium, the fallopian tubes (salpingitis). This leads to the development of inflammation in these organs, blockage of the tubes and development of infertility and tubal (ectopic) pregnancy .

The complications and consequences of colpitis are very difficult to treat and sometimes impossible, they are very tragic for a woman, but it is easy to prevent the development of the disease in the early stages. Follow the recommendations, use the services of a gynecologist to avoid the disease and its consequences.


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