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Thyroid cyst: symptoms and treatment, causes and signs

The thyroid gland is located on the front of the neck and is an endocrine organ that produces vital hormones.

If any inclusions or seals form in the tissues of the thyroid gland, then they speak about the development of a cyst of the gland - but what is it and how to treat the cyst? Let's look at this question in detail.


Thyroid cyst - what is it?

A thyroid cyst is the formation inside the gland of nodular cavities filled inside with fluid. They resemble in their structure a kind of capsule that can be groped with a routine medical examination.

Thyroid cyst

Formations can be single or multiple, malignant or benign. A colloid cyst of the thyroid gland (non-toxic goiter) and follicular (adenoma of the gland) are distinguished. The latter type of cyst is most common in women of young age and is caused by changes in hormonal levels.

Depending on the location of the pathological process, there are:

  • Cyst of the left lobe of the thyroid gland;
  • Isthmus cysts;
  • The cyst of the right lobe of the gland.

The cyst of a share of a thyroid gland meets most often, clinical manifestations will depend on the place of localization of pathological process.

Cyst of the right lobe of the thyroid gland

When a cyst is formed on the right side of the gland, the patient will complain of the following symptoms:

  • Difficulty swallowing, sensation of a foreign body on the right side;
  • Squeezing of tissues in the area of ​​neoplasm;
  • Siphoning on the right side;
  • Swollen lymph nodes on the right;
  • Change of voice, hoarseness, hoarseness.

Cyst of the left lobe of the thyroid gland

The cyst of the left lobe is characterized by the appearance of the following clinical symptoms:

  • Headaches;
  • Pain in the heart;
  • Swollen lymph nodes on the left side;
  • Sense of lump in the throat, difficulty swallowing.

In severe cases, numerous cysts and nodes are observed in both lobes of the gland.

Little about the causes of the disease

The structure of the thyroid tissue is represented by numerous follicles filled inside with a gel-like protein substance (colloid) of protohormones. When any violation of the production of these hormones, the cavity of the follicle increases significantly, resulting in a cyst.

Predisposing causes of such a violation are the following factors:

  • Constant stress;
  • Physical overstrain;
  • Postponed surgery;
  • Increased hormone production in the body, hormonal imbalance;
  • Inflammatory diseases of the thyroid gland;
  • Iodine deficiency;
  • Poisoning of the body with chemicals, toxic substances or certain drugs;
  • Injuries to the neck in front of which the thyroid gland is disrupted;
  • Poor environmental conditions;
  • Congenital pathologies of the gland;
  • Genetic predisposition;
  • Pathological proliferation of thyroid tissue.

Signs and symptoms of thyroid cyst

symptoms of thyroid cyst

The clinical picture of the disease depends on the degree of progression of the process and the size of the cyst. Common signs of a cyst of the thyroid lobe in a patient are:

  1. Difficulty in swallowing - the patient complains about the feeling of the presence of a foreign object in the throat, lump, feeling that he was choking;
  2. Violation of full breathing - this symptom is caused by an enlarged organ, as a result of which a part of the gland puts pressure on the larynx and trachea;
  3. Change of voice - hoarseness, hoarseness;
  4. Consolidation and enlarged lymph nodes.

In addition, the symptoms of the disease depends on the type of cyst. A colloid cyst of the thyroid gland is characterized by the occurrence of heart palpitations and shortness of breath in a patient, in some cases, the body temperature may increase to 40 degrees and chills.

In severe situations, cysts suppurate, which is fraught with the development of sepsis and other serious complications.

Cyst in pregnant women

Since during pregnancy all the organs and systems of the woman work in an enhanced mode, then, accordingly, the load on the thyroid gland increases, including.

The cyst of the thyroid gland in women in an interesting position develops as a result of a powerful hormonal surge, or old neoplasm is progressing under the influence of the same hormonal alteration.

On palpation of the anterior part of the neck of a woman, the doctor reveals tangible seals and nodes of the thyroid gland. As a rule, cysts formed during pregnancy, after childbirth and completion of the lactation period, resolve themselves and do not require special treatment, but only observation from an endocrinologist.

Cyst of the thyroid gland in children

Formation of a cyst of a thyroid gland in children is most often observed during puberty and intensive growth. The body does not have time to adapt to the changes taking place on the hormonal background, as a result of which the formation of cysts and seals in its tissues takes place.

In addition, the cause of the formation of thyroid cysts in a child may be the following factors:

  • Frequent colds;
  • Weak immunity;
  • Long-term treatment with any drugs;
  • Neck injuries;
  • Transferred operations;
  • Lack of iodine in the body;
  • Bad ecology;
  • Diseases of the mother, suffered even during pregnancy;
  • Stress and increased physical exertion.

When a thyroid cyst is detected, the child is registered with the endocrinologist and is carefully observed, periodically examining it comprehensively. In young children and adolescents, the risk of rebirth of a benign process into a malignant tumor is very high.

Parents of a child should alert the following symptoms that occur in a child:

  • Refusal to eat, complaints of difficulty swallowing;
  • Excessive sweating;
  • Lethargy, irritability, capriciousness;
  • Increase in body temperature to high levels (above 39 degrees);
  • Cough and hoarseness;
  • Enlarged cervical lymph nodes.

If such symptoms occur, the child should be shown to a doctor as soon as possible.

Diagnosis of cyst

Diagnosis of cyst

Diagnose a cyst gland in most cases is not difficult. Large neoplasms are visible and palpable. Small cysts are easily detected by ultrasound of the organ and blood tests for thyroid hormone levels.

To determine the type of cyst and the nature of the process (benign or malignant), a puncture of the neoplasm is performed, the punctate obtained is sent to a laboratory for research. Based on the obtained data of the procedure, the doctor prescribes the appropriate treatment to the patient.

Treatment of thyroid cyst

The size of the neoplasm, the nature of the occurrence and the severity of the clinical symptoms of the pathology largely depends on how to treat a thyroid cyst.

It is optimal when a cyst is detected at an early stage of its development, when the size of the tumor does not exceed 3 cm in diameter.

In the absence of cyst growth and the patient's stable condition, the neoplasm is simply observed at the endocrinologist, periodically pass control tests and undergo ultrasound.

With the growth of a cyst, the work of the gland can be disturbed, which leads to the development of serious consequences and complications for the whole organism. Treatment at this stage may be conservative or operative.

Treatment of thyroid cyst

Solutions are inserted into the cavity of the cyst with a special thin needle, causing the walls of the cyst to fall off and further scarring of the tissues. After that, iodine and synthetic analogues of thyroid hormones are prescribed.

With the growth of a cyst or its large size, the patient must be punctured. For the procedure, a thin needle is used, which pumps out the contents of the cyst cavity and directs it for further histological examination. When suppurating cysts, antibiotics are prescribed to the patient.

Indications for surgery are:

  • Progressive cyst growth;
  • Pressure of the neoplasm on adjacent organs and blood vessels, which leads to disruption of their functioning;
  • Recurrence of the disease and the formation of new cysts;
  • Rebirth in cancer.

Surgical removal of the affected lobe of the thyroid gland.

In some cases, the operation on the gland is replaced by laser coagulation. This method is minimally invasive and not as traumatic as abdominal intervention. It consists in removing the cyst with a laser beam under the control of ultrasound.

How to treat thyroid cyst folk remedies?

Folk recipes are ineffective with a progressive cyst of the thyroid gland, in addition, not going to a doctor and self-healing with herbs can lead to a loss of time and the reincarnation of a new growth into cancer.

Traditional medicine can be used only along with adequate therapy prescribed by a doctor, and not instead of it.

Teas from the following medicinal herbs help to organize the work of the thyroid gland:

  • Bloodroot;
  • Celandine;
  • Succession;
  • Nettle.

A spoonful of dry grass can be added to a thermos with black tea, insist, filter and drink several times a day.


It is important not to start the pathological process and consult a doctor in time. A progressive cyst of the thyroid gland is fraught with the development of negative consequences:

  • Violation of the internal organs as a result of pressure on their walls or large blood vessels and nerves;
  • Reincarnation in cancer;
  • Formation of cyst abscesses;
  • Sepsis;
  • Formation of goiter .


In order to prevent the development of thyroid cysts, one should lead a healthy lifestyle, not take medication without prescription, treat inflammatory diseases in time, eat a balanced diet.


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