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Cervical cyst: causes, symptoms and treatment

The mucous membrane that lines the surface of the cervix and is called endocervix is ​​provided with nabot glands. They secrete mucus that prevents the penetration of infections to the internal genitals.

Violation of these glands provokes the formation of cervical cyst. Symptoms and treatment, causes and types of pathology are discussed in detail in this publication.


Cyst on the cervix: what is it?

Normally, mucous secretion freely comes to the surface. But if the excretory ducts become clogged, the mucus accumulates in the glands, forming cysts on the cervix.

Cyst on the cervix: what is it?

Cyst on the cervix, photo

The cause is an infectious-inflammatory process of the genital sphere, hormonal disorders or tissue injury.

Externally, cysts look like nodules, or vesicles filled with clear fluid, or acne, and can be located on the cervix and in the cervical canal.

Endocervical cysts on the cervix are of two types:

  • single or endometrioid;
  • plural, other names - Nabotov, retention.

A single cyst is formed due to the penetration of endometrial cells in the injured area, has a bluish tint, sometimes bleeding. Its size increases before menstruation.

Retention cysts have the appearance of white nodules containing accumulated mucous secretion and scaly epithelium. This variety is often the result of self-healing ectopic cervix.

Causes of

Factors affecting cyst formation:

  • Infectious diseases of the genital organs - tissue inflammation affects the glands, because of this, the outflow of mucus is difficult.
  • The work of the nabot glands is disturbed in the process of active healing of the injured areas after delivery, which causes obstruction of the excretory ducts by mucous secretion. This is the most common cause of cervical cyst.
  • Climacteric period - hormonal changes in a woman's body lead to thinning of the mucous membrane. The glands become more sensitive to external irritations and produce more mucus that does not have time to go to the surface.

Rare causes of the appearance of cystic nodules on the cervix are tumors or congenital abnormalities in the body. In accordance with this, malignant and dysontogenetic types of cysts are distinguished.

Symptoms of a cyst on the cervix

Symptoms of a cyst on the cervix

the appearance of cysts, photo

Small formations rarely make themselves felt. Symptoms of cervical cyst occur if the glandular capsule with accumulated mucus reaches large sizes. The symptoms are:

  • excretion of blood between periods;
  • pain during sexual intercourse;
  • intermittent pain in the lower abdomen, often pulling.

Having noticed at least one of the symptoms, one should not hesitate to make an appointment with a gynecologist, since intermenstrual bleeding and a feeling of discomfort may be manifestations of not only cysts, but also a malignant tumor.

These signs of cervical cysts are often accompanied by vaginal discharge, due to the presence of infection in the genitals.


The identification of cystic nodules is not difficult - they are detected during a gynecological examination. After that, colposcopy (examination of the cervix and vaginal walls using an optical device - a colposcope) or ultrasound is performed to clarify the diagnosis.

In the future, the doctor prescribes a bacterioscopic smear analysis to determine the microflora and study for the presence of infection.

At the stage of diagnosis, it is important to exclude a cancer, therefore an additional method of examination before the appointment of therapy is the study of epithelial cells for malignant transformation.

What to do if cysts are found on the cervix? On the treatment of the disease, read on.

Tactics of treatment of cervical cyst

Therapy of purulent mucous cysts is carried out in two stages. On the first one, they are pierced, removing the contents, and on the second, if necessary, antibiotics are taken in accordance with the specific infection that caused the formation of nodules.

Puncture is not carried out during menstruation and 3 days before it starts. This is to minimize the risk of endometriosis in the tissues of the uterus.

Instead of the usual surgical method for the treatment of cervical cyst, the following methods are used:

  • cryotherapy (cauterization of nodules with liquid nitrogen);
  • radio wave removal;
  • laser burn;
  • electrocoagulation.

Of these, the first two are considered the most benign options, since the use of liquid nitrogen and radio waves avoids the formation of scars.

Laser treatment is somewhat painful. However, it not only removes tissues of an enlarged gland, but also burns blood vessels, which is especially useful for an endometrioid bleeding cyst.

The laser method has practically no complications, therefore it is recommended for women who have not given birth yet.

After cauterization of a cyst of the cervix for several days, pain may be observed in the lower abdomen. To accelerate tissue regeneration, 10 days after the operation, healing candles are prescribed, and after a month, it is necessary to undergo a check-up examination at the gynecologist.

Is cyst on the cervix dangerous?

Is cyst on the cervix dangerous? In most cases, cysts on the cervix do not pose a danger to life and health. They do not degenerate into cancer, do not interfere with the normal course of pregnancy, do not complicate childbirth and do not provoke the appearance of ovarian cystic formations.

But if they are infected and increase in size, they can cause some problems:

  • If pathogenic microorganisms penetrate into the cavity of the gland with accumulated mucus, purulent infiltrate develops in the cyst - inflammation begins. Over time, it can spread to the uterus and appendages.
  • Large cystic nodules sometimes act as a mechanical cause of infertility, as they squeeze the cervical canal, preventing conception. Removing a cyst completely eliminates this problem.

For timely detection and elimination of cysts, regularly undergo a gynecological examination, carefully monitor your well-being and contact a specialist for any warning signs.

Cyst of the cervix ICD 10

Section Q51 - Congenital malformations of the body and cervix.

  • Q51.6 - Embryonic cyst of the cervix

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