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Bartholin's cyst gland: causes, treatment, types of operations

Hydration of the labia, especially increasing during sexual arousal and during sexual intercourse, is provided by special glands located in the thickness of the labia majora. The glands were first discovered and described by K. Bartolin, so they were named after him.

The Bartholin glands are located at the base of the labia majora on both sides. They have rather long excretory ducts, which have access to the mucous membrane of the small lips from the inside. The glands produce a thick and viscous secret (lubricant) that moisturizes the entrance to the vagina, allowing the woman to not feel discomfort during intercourse.

Sometimes, when visiting a gynecologist, a Bartholin gland cyst is revealed in women - a pathological formation that is a thin-walled cavity (pouch) filled with liquid contents.

What it is?

The Bartholin cyst is a round formation resulting from blockage of the excretory ducts. The secret for one reason or another can not stand out, accumulates, stretching the walls of the duct, and forms a bag filled with thick contents.


The causes of the Bartholin gland cyst

Bartholin cyst

The direct cause of cyst formation in the Bartholin glands is infection and inflammation. These can be genital infections (gonorrhea, trichomonad, ureoplasma, chlamydia), fungal infection in case of frequent thrush in women, and also conditionally pathogenic microflora (staphylococcus, E. coli, streptococcus).

Indirect causes of cyst formation are:

  • Irregular or poor-quality washing of the genital area. Toilet intimate zone should be held at least 2 times a day. A visit to the shower should be carried out before and after intercourse. This applies to both men and women.
  • Violation of the technology of washing. Women should wash the genitals only under running water from front to back to prevent infection with E. coli from the anus.
  • Traumatized skin during hair removal in the bikini area.
  • Occupation "hard" sex with damage to the delicate mucous vestibule of the vagina.
  • Squeezing and rubbing leather in intimate places while wearing too tight underwear or tight jeans.
  • The use of synthetic lubricants for sexual relations, which can "clog" ducts of Bartholin glands.

Symptoms of a Bartholin gland cyst

The appearance of the symptoms of this disease is directly related to the size of the cyst formed, that is, the severity of the process. If the cyst has small sizes, then the woman most likely will not feel any subjective sensations.

Very often, such cysts are detected by a gynecologist during routine examinations or when a girl or a woman applies for another reason. With the growth of cysts, symptoms appear that begin to bother and interfere with the usual way of life.

Signs of a cyst in the Bartholin gland as the symptoms increase:

  1. One of the labia majora (both are less likely to be involved) has increased in size.
  2. Tumor formation in the region of the labia becomes painful during intercourse.
  3. The cyst is greatly enlarged, soreness is manifested when walking, physical exertion.
  4. The labia is greatly enlarged in size, a large tumor-like mass is groped, which is sharply painful on palpation, looks red and hotter. The body temperature of the woman is increased, movements of any nature become impossible due to pain in the genital area.
  5. The very last stage is cyst breakthrough. The cyst is opened, purulent contents follow from it.

Diagnosis of cyst

If you suspect the formation of cysts in the area of ​​the Bartholin glands, you must contact a gynecologist. Diagnosis of the disease includes a thorough examination of the patient in a gynecological chair and getting smears.

It is necessary to determine the presence of diseases that could provoke the formation of cysts.

After the pathogen has been identified, the doctor tests for sensitivity to antibiotics to prescribe effective therapy.

Bartholin gland cyst treatment without surgery

Bartholin gland cyst treatment without surgery

The choice of treatment method mainly lies on the shoulders of the gynecologist, but in some cases may be consistent with the patient. If the size of the cyst is small, and it does not bring much suffering, the treatment is conservative.

If the cyst has a tendency to frequent relapses, and the woman is tired of constantly fighting her, then the doctor may suggest surgery. With the consent of the patient, the cyst is removed by surgery.

Types of non-surgical treatment of Bartholin gland cyst:

  • Small cysts often dissolve on their own. This happens because of the self-cleaning of the blocked duct. When a small cyst is first detected, the doctor may advise to observe it for some time (in the absence of other gynecological diseases).
  • Drug treatment is aimed at the cause of the cysts - genital infections, fungal infection, infection with E. coli, etc. After identifying an infectious agent, the gynecologist will prescribe the appropriate drugs.
  • As an auxiliary treatment, sit-down trays with chamomile or potassium permanganate can be recommended.
  • On the area of ​​the cyst, dressings with Vishnevsky ointment or ichthyol can be applied.

Bartholin gland cyst operations - 7 techniques

The need for surgical intervention occurs in cases where the cyst has greatly increased in size, has a pronounced pain symptom, as well as in the case of transition of the cyst into the Bartholin gland abscess (suppuration).

Cyst removal is performed with frequent recurrences of the disease, regardless of the size of the formation.

Bartholin gland cyst operations can be performed in several variations. The choice of method depends on the stage of the disease, the presence of complications and the general condition of the patient.

Под марсупиализацией кисты бартолиновой железы подразумевается вскрытие кисты хирургом, очищение полости, а затем подшивание краев кисты к хирургическому разрезу. 1. By marsupialization of the Bartholin gland cyst is meant opening the cyst by the surgeon, cleansing the cavity, and then stitching the edges of the cyst to the surgical incision. Thus, there remains a hole for the outflow.

Наиболее щадящим и современным методом лечения является вапоризация кисты бартолиновой железы. 2. The most gentle and modern method of treatment is vaporization of the Bartholin gland cyst. The procedure is carried out by laser. Does not require special preparation of the patient, is carried out on an outpatient basis. The process of removing a cyst with a laser takes no more than half an hour.

The laser beam breaks the dense contents of the cyst, as if evaporating it. The procedure is painless and bloodless. After vaporization, the risk of recurrence is very low. Anatomical integrity of the genitals is not broken.

Беременные женщины тоже не застрахованы от этого недуга. 3. Pregnant women are also not immune from this disease. Bartholin's cyst gland can make itself felt during pregnancy. Naturally, taking antibiotics and surgery during this period can harm the child. Leave no attention to pathology too.

Gynecologists practice aspiration technique to remove the contents of the cyst. A cyst is punctured by a needle and aspiration of the fluid filling the formation is performed. Of course, the method is only a temporary relief of the condition. Most likely, after delivery, the woman will need to consult a doctor for further treatment.

В некоторых случаях гинеколог может предложить установить word-катетер в полость кисты. 4. In some cases, the gynecologist may suggest installing a word catheter in the cyst cavity. Installation is performed after opening and cleansing the cyst. A small tube is inserted into the cavity of the cystic formation, having a can for fastening at the end.

It is recommended to carry a catheter about a month. During this time, a new duct is formed at the site of the catheter, through which lubrication will be released.

Еще один из методов образования искусственного протока – пирсинг на месте кисты. 5. Another method of forming artificial duct is piercing at the site of a cyst. The principle is the same as when installing the catheter, only the tubule being installed has the form of a ring, and the cyst is punctured through the top of its tip with a piercing needle.

Piercing allows you to create two channels at once, which reduces the risk of relapse by half. This method is performed under local anesthesia, almost painless and does not cause discomfort in the life of a woman.

Вылущивание кисты – хирургический метод, при котором киста должна быть отделена скальпелем от окружающих мягких тканей и удалена вместе с оболочкой. 6. Husking a cyst is a surgical method in which the cyst must be separated with a scalpel from the surrounding soft tissue and removed along with the sheath. The method allows to exclude repeated cyst formations, but is very traumatic. She husked under general anesthesia.

During surgery, there is a high risk of losing large amounts of blood. The recovery period is painful and quite long. There is also the risk of scarring, which can bring discomfort and spoil the aesthetic appearance.

Радикальным методом лечения является экстирпация кисты вместе с железой. 7. A radical method of treatment is extirpation of the cyst along with the gland. Removal of the gland is performed with too frequent relapses of the disease, as well as with the ineffectiveness of the above methods.

The cure rate for extirpation of the gland is 100%, but the operation itself has a large number of drawbacks, therefore this method is not particularly popular. In addition, after the gland is removed, the lubricant will disappear. And this will affect the quality of sex life, which is especially important for young women.

Prevention of Bartholin gland cyst formation

Prevention of cyst is reduced to intimate hygiene, the prevention of genital infections and strengthen the body's immune system.

A woman should carefully monitor the cleanliness of the genitals, wear comfortable and high-quality underwear, avoid hypothermia, have only protected sexual acts and regularly visit a gynecologist.


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