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Intestinal influenza: symptoms and treatment, complications, treatment

Hearing the word "flu", everyone is accustomed to present a banal cold. But this is not always the case, what is it? Intestinal flu is rotavirus gastroenteritis, which is the most common acute intestinal infection.

Its feature is the combination of intestinal symptoms with respiratory. The highest incidence is recorded in children aged one and a half to 3 years. However, the disease can occur in all age categories.

Symptoms and treatment of intestinal flu in adults differ little from those in children, and its course is easier.

Intestinal flu can trigger outbreaks, and sporadic cases can occur. The highest incidence is observed in winter and springtime (the peak occurs in April and November), which distinguishes rotavirus infection from other intestinal diseases, which are most common in summer. This is an important feature.

Content

How is intestinal flu spread?

Intestinal flu

The cause of intestinal flu is rotaviruses. They are fairly stable agents in the environment:

  1. At low temperatures in the refrigerator, the viability is maintained for several days.
  2. Chlorine does not have a detrimental effect, so chlorination as a method of disinfecting water is ineffective in preventing rotavirus infection.

Infectious intestinal flu can be by food. It is sold through dirty hands, fruits and vegetables, which are not sufficiently washed with water, and dairy products. Slightly less spread of infection occurs when sneezing. Viruses are contained in droplets of saliva.

Therefore, sick parents, whose clinical symptoms are minimal, can infect a child with kisses. A similar situation can be observed in adults.

Once in the body, the virus invades the intestinal mucosa, causing inflammation. At the same time, the systemic activation of the immune system occurs, leading to a number of extraintestinal complications (arthritis, damage to the nervous system, etc.). However, most often it occurs in childhood. This is due to the still completely unformed immune system of the child.

Symptoms of intestinal flu in adults

Symptoms of intestinal flu in adults

The incubation period of the intestinal flu is short, usually from 1 to 3 days, but in some cases it can vary from 15 hours to 5 days. It depends on the individual characteristics of the human body, primarily on the state of the digestive system and immunity.

The symptoms of intestinal flu appear acutely and reach their maximum during the first day. Such a rapid progression of the disease is a characteristic manifestation of this infection.

In more than half of the cases, signs of intestinal flu include a combination of intestinal and respiratory disorders, the latter usually preceding diarrhea and vomiting.

Respiratory (respiratory) symptoms are minimal, but they are still present. Usually it does not lead to a deterioration of the general condition, therefore, it is often not given due attention. But the appearance of the following symptoms should be alarming in relation to rotavirus infection:

  • Nasal congestion and mucus discharge;
  • Slight coughing (coughing is never significant, unlike regular flu);
  • Redness of the throat and the appearance of grit on it.

Soon intestinal symptoms appear. It is predominant in overall well-being. It is typical for her:

  • Loose stools mixed with mucus, having a watery, frothy consistency;
  • Diarrhea is on average 5 times a day, but sometimes it can reach 20 times;
  • Vomiting preceding diarrhea or appearing simultaneously with it. It lasts up to 2 days, periodically repeating and strengthening.

In adults, less than in children, expressed intoxication syndrome. It is associated with the effects on the human body of intestinal flu viruses. This leads to symptoms such as:

  • Increased body temperature to 39 ° C, normalizing to the 3rd day of the disease;
  • Weakness;
  • Lethargy;
  • Decrease in motor activity;
  • Dizziness;
  • Headache.

Recovery usually occurs one week after the first symptoms of infection appear. After intestinal flu, a sufficiently stable immunity is formed, so re-infection is practically not found.

However, the body is immune only to the type of virus that caused the primary disease. Currently, about 50 rotavirus serological types are known, but 5 have the greatest epidemiological significance.

Diagnosis of the disease

Diagnosis of rotavirus infection is associated with a number of difficulties that are associated with non-specific clinical symptoms. Therefore, laboratory confirmation is always carried out.

The main diagnostic test is the study of feces for the detection of rotavirus antigens. This test is indicated for any intestinal infection with diarrhea.

However, it is important to identify those with a virus - it is they who represent the greatest danger in epidemiological terms.

Treatment of intestinal flu in adults, diet

Treatment of intestinal flu in adults

Preparations for the treatment of intestinal flu in adults, who would directly kill the causative virus, are currently missing.

Therefore, therapy is symptomatic. It aims to:

  1. Restoration of water and electrolyte balance disturbed by vomiting and diarrhea.
  2. Prevention of secondary bacterial inflammation of the intestine.
  3. Decreased body temperature.

To accomplish these tasks, drugs of certain groups are used:

  • Rehydratants (rehydron), retaining fluid in the body.
  • Sorbents (activated carbon, enterosgel and others), absorbing toxins in the intestine, released during the destruction of rotaviruses.
  • Antipyretic (Paracetamol) - mainly in the form of rectal suppositories. Tablets and suspensions are not used, since intestinal absorption is impaired.
  • Enterofuril in the presence of signs of a secondary bacterial infection.
  • Antispasmodics with severe pain syndrome.

The diet for intestinal flu in adults occupies an important place in the comprehensive restoration of the digestive system and the earliest possible onset of recovery. It implies:

  1. Complete rejection of dairy products, which can be a source of infection with rotavirus infection.
  2. Recommended kissel, made from starch and fruit (store kissel is prohibited).
  3. Chicken broth.
  4. Rice porridge liquid consistency, which helps reduce the severity of diarrhea.

The consumption of water and food should be carried out in small portions and often. Otherwise, there is a high risk of activation of the gag reflex due to overdistension of the stomach.

Intestinal flu complications

If treatment of intestinal flu is started in a timely manner, then usually specific complications are not observed. Sometimes the bacterial flora that lives in the intestines can join in - this aggravates the course of the disease.

With a weakened immunity and the absence of treatment in 2% of cases can be fatal. Therefore, congenital or acquired immunodeficiency is a reason to immediately consult a doctor when symptoms like intestinal flu appear.

In 1978, it was found that rotavirus is capable of causing not only a local infection, limited by damage to the mucous membrane of the digestive system. It is also a real risk of generalization, leading to:

  • Convulsive syndrome;
  • Intestinal invagination (volvulus);
  • Erythema of the skin;
  • Heart or liver failure.

Prevention

The only effective method of prevention is currently considered vaccination against rotavirus infection. Since 2013, it has been included in the national immunization schedule. In this case, the mass vaccination can provide effective control over the disease.

Isolated cases of vaccinations are not able to protect the population from intestinal flu. Currently used 2 vaccines:

  • Rotaryx - directed against the most common type of rotavirus.
  • RotaTek - against 5 serological types (its introduction is the most rational).

These vaccines have undergone comprehensive clinical trials in which they have proven their effectiveness. They contain a live virus, but with sharply weakened immunogenic properties.

In addition, preventive measures include:

  • Identification of sources of infection;
  • Timely treatment of sick;
  • Detection of carriers;
  • Regular washing of hands, vegetables and fruits;
  • Drinking only boiled water.
Interesting
Eleanor
2016-10-19 08:41:41
Well at least such a sore bypassed me. Bad that the usual flu has already knocked down. This time, on the advice of her sister, Influcid added to tea with honey. It seems to be a good pace to get better.

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