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Cefalohematoma: in newborns on the head, photo, treatment and effects

The greatest trials fall to a person at the very beginning of his life - at the moment of his birth. Not every child manages to pass the maternal path without consequences. One of them may be cephalhematoma in newborns.

What it is? Cephalhaematoma (Cephalhaematoma) is a form of birth injury caused by a hemorrhagic process (hemorrhage) between the cranial bone and the perirania (periosteum of the skull), forming a hematoma (cavity filled with blood), see photo.

The mechanism of formation of cephalohematoma in newborns on the head is associated with a generic process, during which, the skin is displaced along with perirania on the children's head, causing vascular ruptures in the interval of the periosteum and cranial bone.

Cefalohematoma

photo 1

The hematoma can be of various sizes, depending on how much blood accumulates in it (5-150 ml.). In the cavity of the hematoma, it is in a liquid state, not folding for a long time, which is caused by the failure of the hemostatic system in the body of the newborn, which contributes to the constant accumulation of blood a couple of days after birth and an increase in the size of the formation.

In a week or one and a half the hematoma is reduced, and in a month, it can completely disappear.

The usual localization of cephalohematoma is the parietal zone of the skull, but formation in the occipital, temporal, or frontal zone is possible. It has a clear shape and never goes beyond the region of the bony sutures of the skull, its restriction ensures the pericranium fusion with the cranial bone in the suture zone, keeping the hematoma in one region, which is its main distinguishing feature.

In appearance, such a hematoma is similar to a normal tumor with a mobile inner contents, its borders are surrounded by a roller. The skin covering the tumor does not change its elastic structure and color.

Very often bone fractures are found under the cefalohematoma. Five out of a thousand babies are injured.

Content

Why are cefalohematomas formed?

Cefalohematoma: in newborns on the head

Many provocative factors contribute to the formation of cephalohematoma in a newborn baby:

  • The incorrect position of the child in the womb of the mother - longitudinal oblique or transverse;
  • The large size of the child;
  • Deviations in fetal development due to polysystem, endocrine and metabolic dysfunctions;
  • Hydrocephalic shape of the head of the fetus, ahead of its growth, with infectious pathologies;
  • Severe complications causing prolonged pregnancy;
  • The baby is entangled by the umbilical cord, which can provoke hypoxia and will not allow the fetus to pass freely through the birth canal.

Abnormalities in the structure of the pelvis of the woman in labor - narrow or flat, the presence of bone or cartilaginous growths on the bones of the pelvis can cause the hemorrhage in a baby.

The age of a woman is also of great importance, since in adulthood the incomplete divergence of the pelvic bones is often noted, which creates an obstacle to the free exit of the fetus.

Maybe the weakness of labor activity - the weakened muscles of the uterus and the weakness of their contractile functions will not be able to help the child in the proper amount.

The formation of hemorrhage can be triggered by the rapid course of labor. The rapid pushing of the fetus outward not only leads to a sharp pressure drop (the effect of barotrauma), which can affect the vessels, but also provoke an injury to the head of the baby, causing vascular damage.

Types of damage and severity

Cefalohematoma in newborns photo 3

photo 3

Often, hemorrhagic formations (cephalhematomas) are combined with various other problems, which leads to their species classification. Cephalhematomas can form:

  1. Together with violations of the integrity of the bones of the skull (depressed fractures).
  2. Combined with epidural hematoma.
  3. Accompanied by hemorrhagic stroke.
  4. In combination with focal or cerebral neurological deficit.

The severity of the process is determined by the size of hemorrhage (hemorrhage).

  • The first degree of severity include hemorrhages of up to 4 cm in diameter;
  • In the second degree, the area of ​​hemorrhage is from 4 to 8 cm.
  • The third degree includes hemorrhages, occupying more than 8 cm in diameter, or their combination with multiple cephalomatomas exceeding this indicator.

Small manifestations of hemorrhagic processes fall under the focal classification. With an extensive process, cephalohematoma is a common definition.

Treatment of cefalohematoma in newborns

Infants with this anomaly are supervised by a pediatric neonatologist and a surgeon (if necessary).

Minor cephalohematomas (first degree of severity) decrease independently within seven days after delivery. To stop hemorrhage and stimulate hemostasis, the infant is prescribed calcium-containing drugs and vitamins of the “K” group.

In the absence of complicated processes, no other treatment is required. Minor hemorrhages disappear within a month.

In case of large formations , corresponding to the second or third stage, the surgeon performs pumping of the blood liquid by puncture of the vascular wall (puncture). With the subsequent imposition of a pressure bandage on the injury site.

  • If this is ignored, transient jaundice may be a consequence of the ketohalomatoma of the newborn, caused by soaking the adjacent tissue structures with blood and bilirubin from it, which is formed as a result of tissue breakdown.

When blood is not removed in time, the process of pericranial ossification begins, provoking cranial deformities and the formation of an asymmetric head of an infant. Correct the situation can only surgical intervention for the excision of hardened areas of the cranial bones.

Even a minor loss of blood during surgery may result in the development of a hemolytic anemia in a child. In addition, inflammatory reactions are not excluded in injured tissues.

Accession of infections is fraught with suppressive processes. In such cases, the treatment of cefalohematoma in newborns is carried out by opening the hematoma, cleaning its cavity, installing a drain and then applying an antiseptic dressing.

Perhaps the appointment of ointment "Traumeel" and antibiotics. With small hematomas and the absence of related complications, the child is discharged from the hospital on the 10th day.

With an extensive area of hemorrhage and related complicated situations, the healing process can be delayed indefinitely. The child is subject to dispensary observation by a neurologist and surgeon, who in the coming year must observe the baby and monitor his condition.

  • Negative consequences of pathology are rare, mainly when running processes.

Possible effects of cephalhematoma

effects of cefalohematoma Basically, no effect on the newborn cephalhematoma on the head does not appear. Only in exceptional and rare situations, due to neglected processes, with a multitude of aggravating factors, can a general slowdown in development, manifestation of a neurological syndrome, development of craniosenalgiasis (change in the cranial form) or deceleration of the locomotor motor functions (spastic, hemiplegic, dyskinetic or ataxic form) occur. Cerebral palsy).

No one has yet managed to insure their future offspring against possible injuries during childbirth. But now every future "mother" is capable of ensuring his comfortable and proper intrauterine development.

Prevention of hemorrhagic formations is not difficult - proper, balanced nutrition, elimination of bad habits and compliance with all medical recommendations. For a well-developed child, the birth process will be natural and easy.

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