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Candidiasis of the skin and mucous membranes: causes, symptoms and treatment

Candidiasis is a systemic infectious disease in which not only the skin and mucous membranes, but also internal organs can be affected. It is associated with infection by yeast-like fungi of the genus Candide.

The infection is opportunistic, i.e. for its occurrence is not enough only the presence of fungi as a causative factor, it is necessary to weaken the immune forces of the body (general or local).

From the disease "candidiasis" should be distinguished by dissemination of yeast fungi. They (in the absence of signs of inflammation) are representatives of the normal flora inhabiting the skin and mucous membranes.

Content

What is skin candidiasis?

Candidiasis smooth skin

signs of skin candidiasis, photo 1

Candidiasis of smooth skin and mucous membranes is a manifestation of the disturbed existence of fungi and bacteria that normally live on these organs.

Contribute to this:

  • skin wounds, abrasions, cracks;
  • hormonal changes;
  • stressful conditions.

Under such conditions, Candide's pathogenicity increases in the face of a decrease in the protective function of the skin and mucous membranes. Endogenous infection (self-infection) with fungi occurs.

As a result, they begin to produce toxic substances that damage organs and tissues. This further reduces the resistance of tissues - secondary dysbacteriosis and bacterial infections appear.

Therefore, the appearance of purulent plaque on candidal rashes should be regarded as a running process. It is an indication for prescribing antibiotics, and they, in turn, aggravate the fungal infection.

. You can prevent this vicious cycle if you immediately start a targeted antifungal treatment .

Causes of skin candidiasis

Causes of skin candidiasis The causes of skin candidiasis are associated with two main factors - the presence of fungi that colonize the epithelium, and reduced body resistance.

Today, doctors are particularly worried about the role of the second factor, because because of it, skin candidiasis takes on the features of an epidemic. This was preceded by the following circumstances:

  • Unjustified widespread enthusiasm for antibiotic drugs (they are prescribed even when there is no evidence, it is often the patients themselves who sin).
  • Taking drugs that suppress the immune system - cytostatics, corticosteroids (they are used in the treatment of asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, etc.), hormonal means of protection from pregnancy.
  • The spread of radiation treatment in modern medicine.
  • Increased incidence of HIV infection and tuberculosis.
  • Growth in the number of transplanted organs, which implies a lifelong intake of immunosuppressants.
  • Diabetes.
  • Surgery on the abdominal cavity.
  • The use of endovascular (intravascular) catheters, probes, tracheal intubation.
  • The use of hemodialysis for the treatment of renal failure.
  • Dysbacteriosis.
    Increased chance of massive injury.

инфекцию. Recently, candidiasis of the skin and mucous membranes began to be considered as a dangerous nosocomial infection.

According to research conducted by the Atlanta Centers for Disease Control, up to 12% of debilitated patients in clinics develop candidiasis, incl. and visceral forms (with damage to internal organs).

In 40% of cases, it causes death. However, there are undiagnosed cases of candidiasis, which significantly increase the cited figures.

They can be reduced if the necessary preventive measures are taken in time:

  • Handwashing by medical staff.
  • Timely treatment of skin diseases of physicians.
  • Use of individual accessories for patient care.
  • Identification of the initial signs of the disease, etc.

Symptoms of skin candidiasis, photo

The development of the disease, photo 2

The development of the disease, photo 2

Considering the clinical manifestations, candidiasis is classified as superficial and deep.

The first is divided into three types:

  1. Dermal - is candidiasis of the skin and nails.
  2. Oropharyngeal (candidiasis of the skin of the face and oral mucosa).
  3. Urogenital (candidiasis of the skin of the genital organs and mucous membranes).

With deep candidiasis affects the internal organs, fungi are sown in the blood. This condition is very serious and in half of the cases is fatal. The source of generalization are skin lesions.

The manifestation of candidiasis between the fingers, photo 3

The manifestation of candidiasis between the fingers, photo 3

Symptoms of candidiasis of the skin appear on the interdigital folds (usually 3–4 folds), in the groin and armpits, in the anal region and on the roller surrounding the nail.

They are characterized by the following manifestations:

  • Small diameter bubbles.
  • Eroded wet surfaces of dark red color. Their boundaries are clear, and the contours are uneven, the epidermis exfoliates at the edges.
  • On healthy skin, foci of elimination appear - very small erosion with detachment at the edges in the form of a fringe.
  • Peeling spots are red.

Skin candidiasis can be combined with damage to the oral mucosa , which has specific signs:

  • The appearance of white raids (most often on the cheeks, tongue and posterior pharyngeal wall).
  • The pain appears when the plaque is compacted (in the initial stages it is absent).
  • Swallowing is impaired.
  • The spread of the process to the esophagus causes chest pain, resembling that of cardiological problems.

Urogenital candidiasis of the skin in women can occur as a candida (the symptoms are absent, and a small number of fungi is detected microbiologically) or as an acute and chronic infection. In acute form, clinical signs persist for 2 months.

  • redness of the skin of the genitals;
  • her swelling;
  • characteristic rashes.

The chronic form of urogenital candidiasis exists for more than 2 months.

Symptoms are less pronounced, but more diverse:

  • Highlight cheesy character.
  • Burning non-intense pain.
  • Itching.
  • Unpleasant smell.
White plaque, sign of oral candidiasis, photo 4

White plaque, sign of oral candidiasis, photo 4

Symptoms are aggravated after sexual intercourse, urination and showering. The chronic form is often accompanied by the development of complications - cystitis and urethritis, and in men, epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis) and prostatitis.

Read more : Features of candidiasis in women

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of surface forms of candidal infection is not difficult. Initially, it is based on clinical data.

At the second stage, laboratory tests are performed to confirm the diagnosis:

  1. Microscopic examination of scrapings.
  2. Polymerase chain reaction .
  3. Crops on media enriched with agar.

Treatment of candidiasis of the skin and mucous membranes

Treatment of skin candidiasis by Fliconazole

Treatment of skin candidiasis by Fliconazole

Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that only 15–40% of patients are prescribed adequate antifungal therapy. This is due to late appeals for help and self-treatment.

The only correct solution is to urgently consult a doctor if any clinical signs and symptoms appear, with suspected skin candidiasis.

Proper treatment is based on a number of principles:

  • Limited intake of carbohydrates from food (carbohydrates are the “food” for mushrooms).
  • Smoking cessation and alcohol abuse.
  • The appointment of antifungal drugs taken by mouth.
  • In severe clinical cases, vaccination, administration of antihistamines and immunostimulants are required.

Currently, there are 4 groups of antifungal drugs used to treat skin candidiasis:

  1. Thiazols - Fluconazole and Intraconazole.
  2. Polyene - Levorin and Nystatin.
  3. Imidazoles - Miconazole, Ketoconazole, Clotrimazole.
  4. Others - Iodine, Griseofulvin and others.

This classification helps to correctly navigate the choice of medicines. If the prescribed medication turned out to be ineffective, then it is replaced with a drug from another pharmacological group.

Fluconazole is a modern, inexpensive, and effective number 1 treatment for candidiasis.

It has several advantages:

  • High bioavailability, so it is effective in any form of the disease.
  • The ability to accumulate in the keratinizing cells of the skin, which prevents the recurrence of candidiasis.
  • Good effect tablets.
  • The existence of a solution for intravenous injections, which are appointed in a serious condition of a person.
  • The possibility of applying the loading dose on the first day of treatment (toxic effect on the liver is absent).
  • The minimum frequency of side effects and the absence of toxicity on the body.
  • It is enough to use once a day.
  • Fluconazole is approved for use in premature babies.

Amphotericin B treatment Despite all the advantages, there are cases of therapeutic failure of fluconazole. They are caused by resistant types of fungi, which are causative agents of candidiasis in 20% of cases.

In this situation, treatment is carried out with Amphotericin B.

The drug is quite toxic, so for the period of its use a person should be in the hospital under medical supervision and dynamic laboratory monitoring.

Amphotericin B is especially dangerous for kidneys - the drug is contraindicated in case of renal pathology.

Prevention of skin candidiasis

The main direction in the prevention of candidiasis is the creation of conditions for the normal growth of the microflora of the skin and mucous membranes and the prevention of dysbacteriosis.

Therefore, important preventive measures are:

  • Regular consumption of lactic acid products (yogurt, kefir), warning dysbiosis.
  • Restriction of sweets in the diet.
  • Compliance with hygiene measures.
  • Refusal from the use of antibacterial soap and gel (they violate the normal microbial landscape of the skin, leading to superinfection).
  • Use of antibiotics only as prescribed by a physician and for the time recommended (it is impossible to cancel them yourself ahead of time).
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