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Comedones: how to get rid of black spots on the face
What is acne, everyone knows. But there is another type of rash - comedo acne, when the skin becomes hilly or covered with so-called black spots. This dermatological problem is widespread among adolescents, but adults also often suffer from it. The good news is that there are effective ways to treat comedones.
- Что такое комедоны 1 What are comedones?
- Разновидности 1.1 Varieties
- Причины образования 2 Reasons for education
- Как избавиться от комедонов на лице и теле 3 How to get rid of comedones on face and body
- Выдавливание 3.1 Extrusion
- Другие процедуры для удаления комедонов 3.2 Other procedures for removing comedones
- Лекарственные средства 3.3 Medicines
- Применение ретиноидов 3.3.1 Use of retinoids
- Фотогалерея: медикаменты для лечения комедонов 3.3.2 Photo Gallery: medications for the treatment of comedones
- Хирургическое лечение 3.4 Surgical treatment
- Отшелушивающие средства 3.5 Exfoliating
- Правильное питание 3.6 Proper nutrition
What is comedo
Comedo is the name of a “plug” of sebum and dead skin cells of the epidermis in the hair follicle or pore. Externally, the rash has the appearance of many known "black spots" on the skin or bumps. Comedones are a type of acne, but without signs of inflammation. In places, however, in the area of their accumulation, single inflamed elements (red pimples) can be observed. This is the next stage of development of comedone if a bacterial infection joins.
The frequency of diagnosis of comedones is about the same in both men and women.
The spread of comedonic eruptions varies from mild cases (with small lesions) to more severe, when extensive areas of the body are covered. A rash may develop on the face, back, neck and chest. Most often comedones appear on the forehead, chin or nose.
Like most types of acne, comedones are especially common during adolescence. Although adults are not insured from them, especially with oily and combination skin type. Often there is a family tendency to such eruptions. For example, if parents had comedones, then children have an increased risk of this dermatological problem.
The cause of comedones in children is unknown. Usually, the presence of acne is not associated with excessive levels of testosterone or other androgenic (male sex) hormones, and children with such a rash do not differ in appearance from their peers.
Comedones can appear in newborns on the second or third day of life. This is due to the "hormonal crisis", which is expressed in the accumulation in the child's body of a large number of maternal sex hormones.
Comedones are open and closed, their type determines the nature of the rash. Open comedones (black spots) - this is what we often call acne. They occur when a sebum plug blocks the hair follicle duct. The upper part of the sealing mass is exposed to air (oxidizes), therefore it becomes brown or black.
Closed comedones (whiteheads) occur when the ducts of the follicles are completely blocked, and the cork from a mixture of sebum and desquamated epidermal cells is not exposed to air. The cork does not turn black; instead, there are visually noticeable bumps or bumps in the skin. They are not inflamed, but the skin does not look perfectly smooth. In addition, in the future there is a risk of inflammation of the elements of the rash.
By size, the elements of acne are divided into:
- microcomedoons - very small, may not be visible to the naked eye;
- Macrocomedoons - elements with a diameter of more than 2–3 mm;
- giant comedones are a type of cyst that has a clear, acne-like opening in the skin.
There is another type of comedones - actinic, or solar. They develop as a result of photodamage and age-related changes in the skin. That is why this variety is observed in older people, and the lesions are located mainly on the face.
Reasons for education
Through the process of cell renewal, our skin acquires the ability to recover from the negative effects of the environment. But because of this, acne and acne are formed on it. If there is an accumulation of peeling cells (for example, due to untimely cleansing of the skin), they stick together with the sticky secretion of the sebaceous gland and form a plug in the duct of the hair follicle. Another factor causing sebaceous gland obstruction is their excessive secretion.
Among the main reasons for the emergence of comedones include:
- Wrong skin care. This includes not only insufficient (or improper) cleansing, but also the use of cosmetics and makeup based on fats. To the very negative consequences for the skin of the face leads to the habit of going to bed without washing. This provokes the accumulation of particles of dead cells, their fusion with sebum, dust and compaction.
- Genetic predisposition. It should be especially careful to follow the skin of the face, if the genus has a hereditary tendency to form acne.
- Hormonal disorders in the body. Most often, the appearance of comedones contributes to an increased level of testosterone.
- Acceptance of certain medications (mainly hormonal). May be accompanied by the appearance of comedones. However, in most cases, they pass as soon as a person stops taking these medications.
- Frequent stay in stressful situations. It has been observed that people under stress change the composition of sebum. Moreover, in a depressed state, a person spends much less time on hygiene and skin care, which leads to the formation of comedones. Often after coming out of stressful situations, comedones that appeared during this period pass by themselves.
- Living in a humid climate and polluted air. This combination is extremely negative for the skin, because it contributes to its active pollution and, therefore, provokes the formation of comedones.
A large number of comedones can be triggered by diet errors. It is noticed that excessive consumption of dairy products and foods with a high glycemic index (sugar and fats) leads to increased acne.
How to get rid of comedones on face and body
There are many ways to treat comedones. They help cleanse the pores, kill bacteria, or reduce the amount of sebum secreted.
Mild forms of acne can pass by themselves, for example, in adolescents, when hormonal background stabilizes and sebum production returns to normal. Severe and advanced stages must be treated with the assistance of a specialist dermatologist.
Squeezing open comedones by hand can be a good solution if the rash is local and small areas are covered with blackheads (nose wings, mid-forehead, chin). And although mechanical cleaning is considered a temporary solution to the problem (the procedure should be carried out regularly as the pores are blocked), it can still be an important step towards skin health.
Proper manual cleaning of open comedones at home or at the beautician involves the following steps:
- It is necessary to clean the skin with a mild detergent (too active cleansing will deprive the skin of its protective layer and make it excessively sensitive to extrusion).
- Use steam. It will help to open the pores as much as possible and soften the plug. To do this, you need to hold your face over a basin of hot water, take a warming shower, or for a few minutes put a towel on your face, previously soaked in heated water and wrung out.
- Next, you should wrap the index fingers of both hands with a clean, dry cloth and place them in the area of comedones.
- Gently pressing and squeezing the skin with both fingers, you need to make "rolling" movement.
- After one or two such squeezes, you should slightly move your fingers to eliminate pressure on the same skin area.
- If the black dots are ready to come out, then it will happen quite easily and without excessive efforts on the part of the person conducting the procedure.
- The contents of the pores will gradually "come out", it must be carefully cleaned from the surface of the epidermis with a cloth.
- If the comedo does not come out, then you should not be zealous, this can only harm the skin and provoke inflammation.
- At the end of the procedure, it is necessary to disinfect the area with an antiseptic and rinse with cool water in order to narrow the pores.
But not always mechanical cleaning is the best way to cleanse the skin from comedones. Inside the follicular ducts live bacteria. During the extrusion of acne there is a risk of their release into the surrounding tissues. This is how inflammations on the skin are formed. Squeezing increases the risk of scarring (scarring).
Other procedures for removing comedones
Successfully remove comedones in a beauty parlor. Use the following methods:
- Mechanical face cleaning. This procedure of extrusion after steaming the skin, carried out under sterile conditions, requiring periodic repetition.
- Method of atraumatic cleaning of the face. In this method, grease plugs are not squeezed out, but dissolved, after opening the pores and putting masks with fruit acids on the skin.
- Peeling. Means for peeling may have different composition of components: anti-inflammatory, keratolytic, antiseborrheic. Peeling cleans not only superficial comedones, but also helps to raise deep ones for the possibility of mechanical cleaning.
- Ultrasonic cleaning. When this happens, the skin is cleaned with ultrasonic waves that cause the cells to oscillate and push the sebaceous plugs out. This is a modern, non-traumatic and very effective method of getting rid of comedones.
- Vacuum cleaning. Carried out with the help of the device with the effect of "intrusion" in a skin contamination. During the procedure, the local blood circulation is activated, which also has a positive effect on the skin condition. Unfortunately, the vacuum is powerless against very deep comedones or inflamed acne.
Mechanical cleaning in the beauty parlor
A safer cleaning is done using a special tool for removing comedones, which is a small loop and a spoon with a hole in the middle at different ends of the metal rod. The tool gently pushes the skin around the eel and brings the contents to the surface. Unlike extrusion, this method does not compress the pore walls, so the risk of injury is lower. But tissue damage can still occur.
Video: face cleaning by a beautician
While a spoon or loop removes only one eel at a time, special strips for pore cleansing destroy several at once. The strips come in different sizes for use on the nose, cheek, chin and forehead. Since the contents of black dots are closer to the surface, they stick to the adhesive inside of the strip and come out when a person removes it. With this procedure, the probability of damage to the pores is less, but some people may experience an allergic reaction.
For drug treatment using the so-called comedolytic (destroying comedo) drugs of local action. They should be applied once or twice a day by applying a thin layer to the entire affected area. The treatment of comedo acne is usually long lasting and may take from a few weeks to several months before a noticeable improvement occurs.
Suitable local remedies:
- benzoyl peroxide;
- azelaic acid;
- salicylic acid;
- glycolic acid;
- retinoids, or structural analogues of vitamin A (they require a doctor's prescription).
Medicinal oral medications (tablets) against comedo acne include:
- retinoids (isotretinoin);
- antibiotics - they are usually prescribed against inflammatory acne (tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, and sulfa drugs).
Use of retinoids
The term "retinoid" refers to retinol (vitamin A) and its derivatives, natural or synthetic. Retinoids affect epithelial cells by binding to receptors within them. Commonly prescribed drugs include Tretinoin, Isotretinoin, Aknekutan and Adapalen.
Tretinoin accelerates cellular metabolism on the surface of the hair follicle. This leads to the extrusion (extrusion) of comedones. Side effects include local skin irritation and increased sensitivity to the sun.
New drugs Tretinoin, designed for slow absorption of the drug by epithelial cells, cause less skin irritation than the originally available form. Improving acne may not occur until two to three weeks after starting treatment.
Isotretinoin does not give results when applied topically. It is taken internally for the treatment of severe forms of acne, which are not amenable to antibiotic therapy. Isotretinoin can cause serious birth defects, including physical anomalies and mental retardation. During treatment with the drug and for some time after taking it, women are forbidden to become pregnant.
Any of the retinoids can have serious side effects. Among them:
- skin blisters;
- skin sensitivity;
- hair loss;
- nausea and vomiting;
- visual impairment.
Retinoids are allowed to be used for treatment strictly at the doctor's prescription.
Antibacterial agents are used to kill bacteria. The most common mild active ingredient with an antimicrobial effect is benzoyl peroxide. It promotes exfoliation of the upper layer of the skin and destroys bacteria due to its oxidizing properties. It is often included in prescription drugs. Benzoyl peroxide is added to acne products, such as gels, creams, lotions, and cosmetic cleansers.
Benzoyl peroxide can be used alone or in complex treatment.
Other prescription antimicrobials include topical antibiotics such as Erythromycin, Clindamycin and Zerkalin.
Photo Gallery: medications for the treatment of comedones
Surgical treatment is sometimes recommended to remove persistent comedo acne that does not respond or does not respond well to conventional therapy. These include:
- cryotherapy - cold treatment;
- electrosurgery - cauterization and deep heating of tissues by currents;
- microdermabrasion - skin polishing with microcrystals;
- laser removal of comedones.
Comedones on the face are sometimes combined with rosacea - a persistent expansion of small vessels of the skin. Both of these problems can be solved simultaneously using the method of laser therapy.
Tools that help open the pores include mild cleansing substances, scrubs, exfoliating preparations and masks. All are available without a prescription. Exfoliators remove the outer layer of the skin, thereby opening the pores. Special masks help get rid of excess sebum. A similar effect can be achieved with homemade products.
Orange Peel Scrub
An orange peel scrub will make the skin clean, smooth and remove comedones. You can prepare it as follows:
- Dry the orange peels, grind them in a blender to a powder.
- Add rose water and milk cream to this powder in equal proportions to make gruel.
- Apply the product to the comedone acne area.
- Lightly massage the skin.
- Wash off in a circular motion when the product is almost dry.
Instead of orange peel, you can use dry chopped lemon zest.
Almond Peeling Mask
Almond peeling mask has a mild action against comedones. Method of preparation:
- Soak a handful of almonds in water overnight.
- In the morning grind in a blender to a paste.
- Add 1 teaspoon honey and apply to the face.
- Massage for 1-2 minutes, then leave to dry for another 5-10 minutes.
- Wash off with warm water.
With comedo acne, the use of hard abrasives is not recommended. They can provoke microdamages on the skin and the addition of a bacterial infection.
Getting rid of comedones is impossible without the normalization of nutrition. Doctors recommend to follow a diet low in sugar, fats and dairy products, which provoke an increased production of insulin.
Insulin is a hormone secreted to transfer glucose into the cell. It is released when a person is stressed or eats. A large amount of it is released when consuming carbohydrates:
- bakery products;
- sweets and other sweets;
- cereal and whole grain products;
- sweet fruit.
Insulin production through a series of reactions also starts during the absorption of fatty foods, especially if it is combined with carbohydrates. Insulin increases inflammation, helps to increase testosterone, which leads to excessive sebum production.
Drinking plenty of fluids is a good way to detoxify the skin. Fresh fruit juices are useful during the day and a glass of warm water with lemon juice in the morning on an empty stomach.
Treatment prognosis and possible complications
In the absence of the necessary treatment, as well as in case of its insufficiency, the manifestations of comedones will worsen with an increase in the area of the lesion, the penetration of inflammatory processes into the deeper layers of the skin. Complications are:
- deterioration of the overall appearance of the skin;
- significant expansion of pores;
- the remaining marks (scars) on the skin after the removal of the lesion.
The prognosis of treatment of comedones can be considered favorable when there is a small lesion area, when treatment is prescribed by a doctor taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient.
To prevent the formation of comedones, it is recommended:
- follow the rules of personal hygiene, use exfoliating agents, regularly perform skin cleansing;
- follow the rules of healthy eating, eliminate bad habits and enrich the body with essential vitamins;
- regularly examine the condition of the skin from a dermatologist, this will give confidence in the preservation of her health.
It must be remembered that once again you should not touch the face with your hands. This prevents the spread of bacteria that cause inflammation on the skin.
Recently, I discovered a new miracle tool! This is a stick for cleaning pores, squeezing acne ... which I unfortunately have! I ordered this wand purely out of curiosity, promised that there would be no trace of extrusion, and the price was ridiculous! So, more to the point ... the wand made of medical steel, at one end an eyelet, holds very tightly, at the other a needle, sharp enough, grabs a very slight pressure to pierce ... As for the result, I can say that it copes with the task quite well, BUT if the problem is already on the surface .. if it is deep, it is useless to try! How to use it? very simple! it is enough to put an eyelet around the pimple and (if the entire pimple is already on the surface) to press (lightly), or (if you have not yet fully matured) “scrape off” it, slightly pressing it so that it goes out all over. It is natural and necessary to process both the wand and the skin itself before all these actions, and it does not even hurt the hands, and then wipe the “battlefield” with lotion or even alcohol. What I want to say is that it is painful enough for her to do all this, but nonetheless tolerant, the main thing is not to press hard! I'll tell you my secret, and maybe for someone, and not a secret ... to minimize the appearance of a trace, after squeezing, I apply a mask of white clay to the affected place, and the consequences in the near future were gone!
This service is provided in any beauty treatment clinic. I advise everyone. Itself not long gone and I want to share my impressions. Manual cleansing of the face is the cleansing of the skin from black spots. The most important thing is to find a good cosmetologist. I searched for a long time and found it. Signed up and here I am on cleaning. The procedure lasted 1h20min. First, the beautician rubs his face. Then he applies a warming tonic, moisturizer and then starts squeezing out black dots (nose, forehead, chin, cheeks). This is the most unpleasant moment. I must say that a specialist works in disposable gloves. Then again a tonic, a pig mask and a cream. The cosmetologist warned that the redness of the skin will disappear in 2–3 days, and after 5 days it will peel off. ... So it was, but then the skin is just super. Did not regret that went.
Having tried many cosmetic products for skin care of the face, once again I am convinced that there is nothing better than natural products. Before you make fruit peels, you need to find out what your skin is missing at the moment, to correctly determine its type. After all, fruit peeling may not be suitable for everyone! Judging from my experience, I can say that it is not necessary to carry out fruit peeling, if you have problem skin with rashes, fruit acid can only aggravate your rashes and clearly emphasize them.
I have a more or less normal skin type, so fruit peels, as a whole, stand up well, but sometimes, slight redness after such procedures still happens, but this is normal! For oily skin, this type of peeling is just a great option! Every time, I try to try something new, mix different fruits, experiment, and so, for some time, I have my own peeling recipes, which I try to do, taking the main component of a banana, as I consider it the most benign skin exposure:
1. Kiwi + banana = massaging the skin for no more than 5 minutes
2. Also, I sometimes use grape juice in combination with an apple! Perfectly dries the skin of the face and cleans it! By the way, such peels can be made on the neck - it rejuvenates well, cleanses, tightens the skin!
3. Apple! Just apple peeling - carefully rub apple pulp - 5 minutes! Redness of the skin appears - but there is nothing wrong with that, it should be so! Redness of the skin means that the peeling has worked!
4. Honey + lemon! I consider this peeling to be very good! Perfectly cleanses, moisturizes and whitens the skin of the face! If the redness of the face causes discomfort, you can wipe the skin with a decoction of chamomile, good help!
Although comedo acne is not as noticeable or problematic as other types of acne, they still cause concern. This is quite logical, and therefore, it is important to control their development so as not to cause more serious complications. After all, if comedones are not treated, they can develop into inflammation of the skin with the addition of infection.