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Chronic alcoholism: etiology, stages, symptoms and treatment

In itself, alcoholism, for any of its manifestations (alpha, beta, or gamma), is a disease that manifests itself as a result of an irresistible dependence on alcohol.

Chronic alcoholism (ethylism) is the most severe and dangerous type of illness, gradually turning into the strongest individual (mental) and biological (physical) dependence. With the presence of diseases of somatic and mental nature caused by prolonged exposure to alcohol.

The chronic process develops mainly in the "strong half" of humanity. But female chronic alcoholism today is not uncommon. The signs are quite diverse.

Their severity increases with the progression of addiction (obsessive need) on the usual background of household drinking, increasing with time to critical indicators. In an effort to achieve the cherished euphoric buzz, drinkers do not pay attention to the amount of alcohol consumed, which imperceptibly leads them to regular changes in the psyche.

Content

Etiological process

Chronic alcoholism

According to the theory, repeatedly proven by research, the basis for the development of the chronic form of alcoholism is “burdened” heredity, due to the lack of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase and the presence of cells, the damage of which leads to the development of dependence syndrome.

In addition, people with a certain type of personality are prone to illness — easily suggestible and unable to withstand life difficulties and collisions, subject to cyclotymy (mood swings). Their initial perception of alcohol is influenced by culture, upbringing, family traditions, status and position in society.

A systematic effect on the body of alcohol leads to poisoning and narcotic intoxication of the central nervous system, the structural elements of the brain tissues that are responsible for the mechanism of the physiological formation of affects and feelings are violated. Subsequently, this causes alcohol addiction (alcoholomania) and drastic changes in the cell's response to alcohol.

This is manifested by failures of chemical reactions in the body and damage to internal tissues and organs at the level of proliferation. The most toxic compound poisoning the body is ethanal, produced by the liver as a result of the oxidation of ethanol containing beverages. No wonder, chronic alcoholism during pregnancy is an indication for interruption.

Forms and stages of development of alcoholism

stages of development of alcoholism It cannot be argued that chronic alcoholism has an instantaneous development - today the person drank, and tomorrow he became an alcoholic. The chronic form is characterized by a prolonged, systematic effect of alcohol.

In men, this process can take up to 15 years, in women just over four years. But genetic predisposition reduces this period to a year, which is explained by an increased titer of susceptibility to ethanol.

Ethylism is formed in three directions with characteristic signs and duration.

  1. Ethylism of the severely pro-progressive form develops very quickly (up to 3 years). It is characterized by serious personal changes and the absence of periods of remission.
  2. Medium-progressive form is less rapid, the duration of the development process is estimated at 8 years. The clinic is characterized by a mild course with a long absence of alcoholic desire.
  3. Ethylism of a low-pro-form form is distinguished by the slowest development, the period of remission can last for years.

Stages of chronic alcoholism differ according to gradually increasing characteristic signs.

In the 1st stage of the disease, the patient has a painful craving for alcohol and the need for systematic use.

With stage 2 chronic alcoholism, withdrawal syndrome (hangover) is the main symptom of the disease. Confirms the full formation of the disease, manifesting functional pathologies of internal organs.

In the 3rd stage of ethylism, the resistance to alcohol rapidly decreases. Signs of irreversible processes in the body appear:
drunken state and complete loss of mental equilibrium. The abolition of alcohol causes an acute manifestation of withdrawal syndrome: attacks of hysteria, depressive disorders and panic state.

In this last stage, the life of an alcoholic turns into a continuous celebration, with incessant binges. Short stops make it impossible for the body to get rid of toxins. High-quality alcohol is easily replaced by a substitute, since now it does not play a significant role to achieve euphoria.

It is this period that is characterized by the development of a psychoemotional and biological dependence. Drinking in the life of a person acquires greater importance, any attempts to resist drunkenness cease, moral standards of behavior completely disappear.

Psycho-emotional (mental) state

focal seizures

The prolonged effect of toxins on the cells of brain structures causes rapid death (necrosis) of nerve cells. Appearing in a quarter of drunken alcoholics mental disorders in the form of:

  • acute hallucinosis;
  • paranoiac states;
  • affect and anxiety;
  • focal seizures (epileptic).

Psychopathic symptoms manifest themselves in a drunken period and periods of sobering up. The destructive effect of alcohol causes partial memory lapses, a complete inability to concentrate, leading to dementia and complete degradation. Family and morality become abstract concepts.

Parasitic life, constant dependence on alcohol, accompanied by unreasonable fear, imaginary danger, anxiety and suicidal tendencies. Soothes the patient, only the constant "feeding" alcohol. Without a regular dose of drinking, no activity is possible.

In chronic alcoholics, initially with a weak character (asteniki), an inferiority complex develops, an increased feeling of insecurity and timidity, neurasthenia. Personality of hysterical nature is characterized by a tendency to deceit and bravado. Most patients with chronic disease have difficulty sleeping, causing progression of nervous exhaustion.

Indicators of physical (biological) dependence

When an alcoholic reaches the stage of ethylism, his organs are already significantly affected, the diseases that have arisen become neglected. Pain symptoms are not perceived in a state of drunken euphoria, since the organism lives in a state of extreme, pain only makes itself felt in rare moments of sobering up and again, is muffled by alcohol.

Therefore, cirrhosis, ischemia, hypertension, ulcers and gastritis, hemolytic, heart and kidney pathologies are in a neglected state. Biological dependence on ethanol becomes stable due to disruptions in chemical metabolic processes, in particular the failure of an independent synthesis of an alternative substance to alcohol, which ensures the vital activity of the organism.

Systematic feeding of the body with alcohol stops the cellular synthesis of the necessary enzymes as unnecessary. The abolition of alcohol causes an unbearable need for the next intake, since independent synthesis is no longer possible.

Characteristic symptoms of chronic alcoholism

Signs of chronic alcoholism can be easily noticed by the behavior and appearance of a person.

  1. Atilism is manifested by pronounced symptoms on the body and face. The skin is dry and wrinkled, arms and legs are dotted with swollen veins. Eyes covered with a grid of burst capillaries and surrounded by bruises. There is swelling and yellowness of the skin, trembling hands.
  2. Signs of female alcoholism are manifested by negligence of appearance, puffy bluish face, wrinkles and a hardened voice. The disease in women develops so quickly that the treatment of female alcoholism is very complicated.
  3. Such patients are characterized by isolation and depression in rare cases of sobriety. A drastic change of mood and improvement of the state are possible only with the next binge.
  4. Binges are constant and the dose of alcohol is constantly increasing, characterized by resistance to high doses.
  5. When taking write, there are gag reflexes.
  6. Characteristic signs of withdrawal syndrome.

Treatment of chronic alcoholism - is it possible?

Treatment of chronic alcoholism

It is impossible to cope with the chronic alcoholic disease on your own. Here the deformation of the psyche and the physical dependence of a person on alcohol play a role.

According to specialists narcologists, this pathology is not completely cured. But as a result of properly selected medical therapy, sustained long-term remission can be achieved. With the voluntary treatment of the patient and the desire to return to life, you can fight against addiction.

The treatment begins with detoxification therapy and infusion drip therapy with Metadoxil. Vitamin therapy is added. When treating chronic alcoholism with drugs, the course of treatment and dosage are calculated by the attending physician.

As a psychotherapy, it is obligatory to take neuroleptics, psychotropic drugs, anticonvulsant and hypnotic drugs. You should not try to pick them up and heal yourself. Such drugs are purchased only with a prescription.

With pronounced paroxysmal vegetative disorders, vegeto-stabilizing therapy is prescribed. Nootropic drugs - Phenibut, Pikamilon, or Pantogam and Binastim are used to clean up the functions of the vascular system. Recommended caloric intake, plenty of fluids, insulin doses to increase appetite. Mandatory treatment is carried out aggravated background pathologies.

Today, the methods of modern treatment of alcoholism are very diverse, but they can only be offered after the patient’s condition has stabilized. It can be:

  • various types of blockades with preparations and electromagnetic impulses;
  • methods of ozone therapy and ultraviolet blood irradiation;
  • blood purification using plasmapheresis;
  • Dovzhenko therapy;
  • filing of the drug "Esperali;
  • intravenous administration of Disulfiram;
  • hypnotherapy or coding.

The most effective treatment is the support of native people in the first months of the treatment process.

Consequence of illness

The highest mortality in ethyl is cardiovascular disease. The action of alcohol has a destructive effect on the heart muscle, increasing the risk of death.

Increases mortality and alcohol intoxication, causing hepatic tissue necrosis and pancreatic necrosis. Such drunken people are more often subject to accidents and suicide. Without appropriate treatment, no one can stop them.

Interesting
Alexey
2016-11-28 05:44:06
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