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Thrush in children: timely therapy will avoid complications

Candidiasis is a common disease, the development of which is provoked by yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida. Many people know another name for pathology - thrush. Pathogenic microflora affects the skin, mucous membranes, nail ridges. In the most complex cases, the pathogen with the blood flow spreads throughout the body, having a negative effect on the state of many organs and systems. Often candidiasis occurs in children, including newborns and premature babies.

Content

Thrush in children and its types

The risk group includes primarily malnourished children with reduced immunity. Often, premature babies suffer from infection. The disease is often diagnosed in preschool children who live in inadequate sanitary and hygienic conditions.

Baby

Thrush is common in babies under one year old.

Depending on the area of ​​the lesion, the following types of disease are distinguished:

  • candidal stomatitis. The lesion develops on the mucous membranes of the mouth;
  • urogenital candidiasis. Unpleasant symptoms occur in the genital area of ​​the child. Girls may have vaginal thrush;
  • pulmonary candidiasis. Damage to the lungs and bronchi of yeast-like fungi develops;
  • Candida endocarditis. The disease often develops in babies who have had prosthetic heart valves;
  • candidal meningitis. Infection affects the soft shells of the brain. May occur in premature babies;
  • Candida intertrigo. Damage to the natural skin folds of a person develops. Often observed in children with insufficient hygienic care;
  • candidiasis of the skin and nails. In a small patient, superficial damage to the skin and nail plates is observed.

When yeast-like fungi enter the patient's blood, candidal septicemia (blood infection) develops.

The causes of the disease

Yeast-like fungi of the genus Candida are conditionally pathogenic microorganisms. This means that they are present on the body of the baby and do not make themselves known for a certain time. Unpleasant symptoms develop when the infection begins to multiply rapidly, falling into favorable conditions. Most often this happens when the child’s immune system is not working at full strength.

With a decrease in the body's resistance to infections, the pathogenic microflora increases. The following factors may contribute to the development of the disease:

  • prematurity;
  • artificial feeding;
  • hypo-and avitaminosis;
  • weakening of the body against the background of diseases carried in recent times (influenza, ARVI, etc.);
  • malignant tumors in the body;
  • endocrine pathologies (including diabetes);
  • chronic viral diseases (including HIV).
Premature baby

Candidiasis often develops in premature and weak babies.

Often develops candidiasis in children who have undergone antibiotic therapy. Such drugs lead to a violation of intestinal microflora. As a result, the mushrooms begin to multiply rapidly. Physical and chemical damage to the mucous membranes or the epidermis can also be attributed to external factors of infection. So, candidiasis on the skin may appear due to irritation by feces or urine.

A common cause of candidiasis in children is hormonal drugs, as well as cytostatics.

Symptomatology

Candida stomatitis is a common clinical form of the disease in young children. On the mucous membranes of the cheeks and tongue (less often - on the palate) appears cheesy white plaque. In most cases, the disease occurs in mild form. The child feels fine, overall health is not disturbed. The overlap is easily separated from the mucous.

Moderate and severe forms of candidal stomatitis are found only in the absence of proper care for the baby, and a refusal of regular check-ups of the pediatrician. On the mucous membranes of the mouth appears already film-like raid. When you try to remove it, only some parts are separated. In place of the removed film, blood appears. The child feels discomfort, does not sleep well and is capricious.

A common phenomenon in children of preschool age is candidal tonsillitis. On the surface of the tonsils appears loose white scurf. The general condition of the child worsens if the disease develops on the background of ARVI. At the same time, body temperature can rise to subfebrile values ​​(up to 38.0 ° C).

Urogenital candidiasis in children is less common. It also appears cheesy plaque on the mucous membranes of the genitals. The baby may behave restlessly due to occasional itching.

Baby's tongue

White cheesy plaque on the tongue - one of the signs of thrush

Individual attention deserves candidal intertrigo. Single bubbles appear in the folds of the skin. The affected area has clear boundaries. If you do not start therapy in a timely manner, the infection passes to other areas of the skin. In the affected area there are areas of hyperemia, pustules form. As the disease progresses, there are areas of erosion. At the same time, the accession of a secondary infection and a significant deterioration of the child’s condition, an increase in body temperature are possible. There is a serious risk to life.

Candidiasis of the internal organs is extremely rare in children. The following symptoms may alert parents:

  • baby capriciousness;
  • sleep disturbance;
  • frequent regurgitation;
  • lethargy;
  • breast failure;
  • cough;
  • elevated body temperature.

Symptoms of candidiasis may be similar to other diseases. In no case can one engage in self-treatment. Only a doctor can prescribe adequate therapy.

Diagnostic methods

If the baby behaves restlessly, you should seek help from a pediatrician. In symptomatology, a qualified specialist can already make a preliminary diagnosis. The doctor specifies when the first signs of the pathological process appeared, what preceded them.

Examination by a doctor

Most often, the doctor may make a preliminary diagnosis on the first examination.

In order to prescribe adequate therapy, the doctor conducts an additional examination. The following methods of differential diagnosis can be applied:

  1. Careful inspection of the lesions. A qualified specialist already on the clinical picture will be able to determine what had to face candidiasis. Other parts of the body, on which pathogenic microflora can potentially develop, are also examined.
  2. Microscopic examination of scraping. During the procedure, it is possible to identify yeast-like cells.
  3. Serological examination of blood. The method is used in the absence of a clear clinical picture, as well as low information content of other diagnostic methods. The study is based on the study of antigens and antibodies in the blood serum of a child.
  4. PCR diagnostics. Often, it is possible to identify candidiasis only with the help of this method. The presence of genetic material of pathogenic fungi in biological samples (scraping or blood) will indicate the disease.
  5. General blood analysis. Concomitant inflammation will be indicated by increased ESR and leukocyte levels.

If you suspect candidiasis of the internal organs, the doctor may order an additional examination using x-rays or an ultrasound unit.

Treatment

Therapy for mild forms of candidiasis in children can be carried out at home. However, if you identify the first symptoms of the pathological process, you should not postpone the visit to the pediatrician. The doctor will tell you how to care for the affected area, select the drugs according to age. Not all medications that are used for children older than one year are allowed to the newborn.

If candidiasis of the skin is diagnosed, including intertrigo, special attention should be paid to hygiene. The child must often hold air baths. Care must be taken to keep the skin dry.

If the child's condition deteriorates rapidly, the baby behaves restlessly, the body temperature rises, further treatment should be carried out in a medical institution. Often such a need arises in case of candidiasis of internal organs or septicemia (blood lesion).

In identifying candidiasis in a child, drugs from the following groups can be used:

  1. Antifungal ointment. Such tools are used for candidiasis of the skin. Good results show drugs with fluconazole. Medicines are widely used Futsis, Flukorem. According to the instructions, these tools are not recommended for children up to a year. According to strict indications in newborns, Batrafen cream may be used.
  2. Antifungal drugs for external use. Irrigation of the oral cavity or other lesions is performed. Nystatin tablets are widely used. With their help, preparing a therapeutic solution. For candidal stomatitis, Candide and Clotrimazole may be used. Diflucan solution shows good results.
  3. Alkalizing solutions. With the help of such means it is possible to suppress the reproduction of fungal microflora. Boric acid solution may be used. How to prepare a remedy in accordance with the age of the child will tell the doctor.
  4. Antiseptic solutions. Sodium tetraborate, methylene blue can be used to treat young patients. For the treatment of children older than 5 years, you can apply the solution Iodinol.

The effect of different drugs may vary depending on the age of the child, the state of his body, the presence of associated pathologies.

At candidal stomatitis in children, Holisal gel is widely used. The drug has antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. If you begin therapy immediately when you experience unpleasant symptoms, you will be able to cope with the disease in 3-4 days.

When complex forms of candidiasis, when the treatment is carried out in a hospital, can be prescribed antifungal drugs for systemic administration. Fluconazole-based injection solutions are often used (Diflucan, Mikosist, etc.)

Medicines for candidiasis in children - photo gallery

Folk remedies for thrush in children

Several centuries ago, various diseases in children, including candidiasis, were treated with the help of recipes of traditional medicine alone. Many products really show high efficacy for thrush. However, they should be applied strictly in consultation with the pediatrician.

Sage

The medicinal plant has a pronounced anti-inflammatory and antiseptic effect. A tablespoon of dry chopped sage should be poured with a glass of boiling water, cover and wait for complete cooling. Then the drug should be filtered and applied to the treatment of the affected surface. In the same way you can make chamomile extract.

Carrots with honey

To prepare an antiseptic solution, grate a small carrot on a small grater, squeeze the juice out of it. The resulting raw materials must be mixed with a teaspoon of honey. This tool helps to quickly restore the affected mucous membranes with candidal stomatitis. However, it is worth remembering that honey can cause an allergic reaction in an infant.

Calendula

The plant also has a good antifungal effect, reduces the likelihood of inflammation. A tablespoon of calendula flowers should be poured with a glass of boiling water and left under the lid closed for about an hour. Then the drug must be filtered. The resulting infusion is used to treat the affected areas several times a day.

According to the reviews, calendula does not harm babies up to a year, including newborns. Regular use of infusion will help get rid of unpleasant symptoms for a few days.

Soda

The tool has a pronounced antiseptic effect, inhibits the reproduction of yeast-like fungi. A teaspoon of baking soda should be diluted in a glass of warm boiled water. The resulting solution is used to treat the affected areas.

Folk remedies for candidiasis - photo gallery

Diet for thrush

If the child is diagnosed with candidal stomatitis, it is recommended that after each feeding, the oral mucosa be treated. The remains of food serve as an excellent medium for reproduction of pathogenic microflora.

Baby eating

Proper nutrition will help speed up the healing process for thrush

If a small patient eats along with adults, you should pay more attention to his diet. Yeast-like fungi multiply rapidly with increasing blood sugar levels. Temporarily limit the consumption of foods containing fast carbohydrates. These include:

  • any confectionery;
  • White bread;
  • sweet drinks;
  • some types of fruit (bananas, peaches, melons);
  • yeast bread.

To the baby was full of strength and feel great, his diet should contain:

  • fresh vegetables and fruits;
  • lean meat and fish;
  • porridges;
  • legumes;
  • nuts.

Diets must be followed not only during the illness, but also within a month after the disappearance of unpleasant symptoms. If the baby is breastfed, the mother will have to adjust his diet.

Useful and harmful products for candidiasis - photo gallery

The prognosis of treatment and prevention

With timely initiated therapy, it will be possible to cope with unpleasant symptoms within 7–14 days. In most cases, there is no trace of candida. However, there is no guarantee that the child will not be confronted with the disease again. It all depends on the lifestyle of the family, as well as the immunity of the little patient.

Against the background of the complete absence of antifungal treatment, candidiasis from a mild form can develop into a severe one. In this case, complications are already developing. A bacterial infection often joins the affected areas. May develop sepsis, threatening to death.

Prevention of thrush in children is reduced to the full hygienic care of the child, strengthening the body's defenses crumbs, regular visits to the pediatrician for preventive examinations. Special attention should be paid to children with reduced immunity, as well as congenital abnormalities.

Video: fungal infections - the school of Dr. Komarovsky

Many parents experience thrush in babies. As a rule, the disease is uneventful and easily treatable. It is important not to start the pathological process and seek help from a pediatrician in identifying the first unpleasant symptoms.

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