• Decoding of online tests - urine, blood, general and biochemical.
  • What do bacteria and inclusions in urine analysis mean?
  • How to understand the analysis of the child?
  • Features of MRI-analysis
  • Special tests, ECG and ultrasound
  • Pregnancy rates and variance values ​​..
Explanation of analyzes

Glomerulonephritis in children (acute, chronic) - treatment, symptoms

Glomerulonephritis is the second most common kidney pathology in children. Most often it occurs between the ages of 3 to 7 years and without timely treatment becomes the cause of dangerous complications.

Content

What is glomerulonephritis?

Units of the urinary system of the kidneys - nephrons - consist of glomeruli and tubules. In the first, urine is filtered, secondly it reaches the final composition and then enters the renal pelvis and then into the bladder.

What is glomerulonephritis? - This is an inflammatory disease caused by infection, a defect in the immune system or allergic causes. And if the disease of pyelonephritis in children affects the tissues of the renal pelvis, glomerulonephritis affects the glomeruli and tubules. This disrupts the normal process of filtering the urine, as a result of its composition and quantity change - it penetrates proteins and red blood cells, which should not be.

Glomerulonephritis in children

As a result, the kidneys do not cope with the excretory function, because of this in the tissues and cells of the body accumulate excess water and salts, which leads to the development of edema and increased blood pressure.

In advanced cases, the disease leads to anemia, the development of heart failure and other serious complications.

Types of disease

There are three main types of disease:

  • chronic;
  • acute;
  • subacute.

These types of disease have a different severity of symptoms, and in childhood the last two forms are more often identified.

Acute glomerulonephritis in children appears against the background of a disease of the upper respiratory tract and lungs (pneumonia, sore throats, acute respiratory infections). The streptococcal infection is the most frequent factor. There are also cases of development of this type of jade after vaccination of the child.

Chronic glomerulonephritis in children (latent) is a consequence of an incurable acute form, or acquired or hereditary anomaly of the immune system.

Types of the disease for reasons:

  • Primary - is associated with congenital renal damage;
  • secondary - is the result of the transferred infection.

Causes of glomerulonephritis in children

Causes of glomerulonephritis in children

The main provocateurs of this pathology in a child are infections - often bacterial, less often viral. The cause of glomerulonephritis in children can become pustular skin lesions , in particular, streptoderma and streptococcal dermatitis.

The general mechanism of the development of the disease in the infectious disease of the body is as follows:

  1. Bacteria or viruses that enter the body actively multiply and release toxins.
  2. These harmful substances penetrate the bloodstream into tissues and organs.
  3. If they accumulate in the kidneys, then antigen complexes are formed and the renal glomeruli become inflamed.
  4. As a result, their lumen narrows, in some places the walls are soldered, and the filtering ability is reduced.

Acute and chronic glomerulonephritis in children can have different causes. The acute form is provoked by the body's reaction to foreign objects:

  • bacterial infection (streptococci, staphylococci and other pathogens);
  • viruses (influenza, measles, ARVI, hepatitis);
  • parasitic infection (malaria, toxoplasmosis);
  • toxins: lead, mercury, ethyl alcohol, etc .;
  • poisons, for example, snake or bee;
  • allergens;
  • serum or vaccine.

The chronic form of glomerulonephritis in children is often secondary, developing because of the ineffectiveness of acute treatment, or it may be a hereditary disease, a congenital or acquired defect of the immune system of the child:

The provoking factor for any form of glomerulonephritis is hypothermia, because under the influence of low temperatures, the blood supply to the urinary system is impaired.

Symptoms of glomerulonephritis in children

Symptoms of glomerulonephritis in children

In children, the latent course of the disease is extremely rare, and in most cases it is an acute form with a pronounced manifestation. Typical symptoms and signs of glomerulonephritis in children are as follows:

  1. Sharp deterioration of state of health;
  2. Pain in the lumbar region;
  3. Decrease in the amount of urine and its coloring in a dark rusty color;
  4. Increased blood pressure;
  5. Swelling, especially noticeable on the eyelids and face;
  6. Headache.

It is very dangerous rapid-progressive form of acute glomerulonephritis. In this case, additional attributes are always:

  • Hematuria (admixture of blood in the urine);
  • Nephrotic syndrome (the presence in the urine of a large amount of protein until the formation of flakes).

The acute form becomes chronic, if recovery can not be achieved in 3-6 months. In this case, puffiness and changes in urine persist for up to a year or more.

With the latent form of glomerulonephritis, most of the above features are not observed. It is possible to recognize this variant of the disease development independently by the appearance of blood impurities in the urine. This is due to the increase in the number of red blood cells.

Symptoms of glomerulonephritis in children under one year of age

Children from 0 to 12 months are ill with glomerulonephritis rarely. If the pathology develops, the symptoms are very painful. The first thing that should alert is the appearance of swelling in the baby, darkening of the urine and a decrease in its daily volume (the diuresis rate is shown in the table).

Age, month. 1-3 4-6 7-9 10-12
Volume of urine per day, ml 170-590 250-670 275-740 340-510

Nevertheless, there are cases of a hidden course of the disease, in which the symptoms of glomerulonephritis in children up to a year are very difficult to recognize.

Determine the presence of the disease can only analyze the urine, which will show the presence in it of red blood cells and protein. Another sign is an increase in blood pressure.

In addition to glomerulonephritis, there are pathologies similar to it in manifestations. For example, the symptoms of pyelonephritis may remind the signs of such inflammation in children under one year. Early treatment and accurate diagnosis play a crucial role in the success of treatment.

Methods for determining the disease

Diagnosis of glomerulonephritis in children includes:

  • examination of the child by the doctor;
  • general urine analysis;
  • Kidney ultrasound and biopsy if necessary;
  • an immunogram;
  • examination of renal vessels;
  • serological examination of blood.

Some diseases have similar symptoms to glomerulonephritis, and only a complete examination allows you to accurately diagnose. For example, tests for pyelonephritis in children reveal an increase in the level of leukocytes.

Tactics of treatment of glomerulonephritis in children

treatment of glomerulonephritis in children

Therapy of the acute form usually lasts from 10 days to a month and, with its timely beginning, ends with recovery. For the treatment of glomerulonephritis, children are prescribed at their discretion:

  1. Antibiotics from a number of penicillins or others, depending on the specific nature of the causative agent of the infection;
  2. Diuretics;
  3. Means for reducing pressure;
  4. Prednisolone and cytostatics.

It is necessary to prescribe a therapeutic diet, and throughout the period of therapy shows bed rest. To assess the success of therapeutic measures, a urinalysis is periodically performed.

In the case of high levels of toxins, pruritus and icteric skin color in the blood, the presence of the smell of urine from the mouth, the treating doctor prescribes a procedure for hemodialysis. This is the purification of blood using the apparatus "artificial kidney."

After completion of therapy, the child should be under the supervision of the nephrologist for five years after recovery. Children who have undergone glomerulonephritis are exempt from physical education, and also require increased protection from infections. In this regard, preventive measures against ARVI and other infectious diseases are important, strengthening immunity.

Diet with glomerulonephritis in children

The nature of the food is aimed at removing edema. At the first stage of treatment, until the daily volume of urine is normalized, salt and proteins are minimized - cottage cheese, eggs, fish and meat are excluded.

Therapeutic diet number 7a with glomerulonephritis in children provides for a sharp restriction of these products and a moderate decrease in carbohydrates and fats.

Food should be predominantly vegetable, steamed or baked, spices and spices can not be added to the dishes. Bread is only allowed to be salt-free, the products should not contain oxalic acid, you can give your child fruit and sugar.

Recommended diet is 5-6 times a day. In this case, daily fluid intake should not exceed the amount of urine released over the past day by more than 300 ml.

Preventive measures and prognosis

The first condition for the successful prevention of glomerulonephritis in children is correct and timely therapy of infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract and skin. If the child is sick, you need to give an analysis of urinary sediment. This will help to identify inflammation in the tissues of the kidneys, if any.

Of great importance is the increase in the resistance of the child's organism to infections: hardening, intake of vitamins, balanced nutrition and other ways of strengthening immunity. All this equally applies to the prevention of pyelonephritis in children.

A successful prognosis for glomerulonephritis depends on the time of the initiation of therapy. Procrastination can endanger the health of the child, causing heart failure, uremia, nephrotic encephalopathy.

Therefore, at the slightest suspicion of the disease should immediately seek medical attention and begin treatment.

Interesting

The information is provided for information and reference purposes, a professional physician should prescribe a diagnosis and prescribe a treatment. Do not self-medicate. | | Contact Us | Advertising | © 2018 Medic-Attention.com - Health On-Line
Copying of materials is prohibited. Editorial site - info @ medic-attention.com