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Hypothyroidism: symptoms and treatment in women, subclinical hypothyroidism

Diseases of the thyroid gland are the most common endocrine pathology. Special attention deserves hypothyroidism, the symptoms of which are often perceived as whims and banal laziness - diagnosed in 2-4% of the population (among women 45-50 years old - 6-8%) and leads to disruption of the entire body. That is why every woman should know the symptoms of hypothyroidism and methods of its effective treatment.

Content

Hypothyroidism - what is it?

Hypothyroidism is a painful condition associated with persistent deficiency (low production or rapid destruction) of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) against the background of an increase in the index of the pituitary pituitary TSH.

Hypothyroidism

These hormones perform the following functions:

  • Responsible for the normal growth and development of the body;
  • They control the work of the heart, nervous and digestive systems, affect the reproductive function and the musculoskeletal system;
  • Regulate the metabolism at all levels - lipid, carbohydrate, protein, water-salt;
  • Participate in the formation of immunity and anti-stress resistance.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism are caused by the violation of the above functions, and the severity of the clinical picture depends on the degree of hormonal insufficiency.

Hypothyroidism leads to:

  • The small size of the thyroid gland and its aplasia, hereditary insufficiency of hormone production (congenital hypothyroidism);
  • Organic pathology of the thyroid gland (primary hypothyroidism) - thyroiditis, nodular goiter, tumors, abscess, tuberculosis;
  • Medical manipulations — resection or complete removal of the thyroid gland, radioactive iodine therapy and administration of drugs with thyrostatic action (corticosteroids, Mercazolil, Dopamine, drugs for treating hepatitis, etc.);
  • Lack of iodine from food (long-term current endemic goiter);
  • Impaired function of the pituitary and hypothalamus (secondary hypothyroidism) - brain injury, pituitary tumors, hemorrhages;
  • Autoimmune disorders (rapid inactivation of hormones) and their deiodination in the blood.

Hypothyroid insufficiency is not an independent disease and always occurs on the background of another disease. However, the cause of the disease is not always possible to identify.

Hypothyroidism in its development goes through the following stages:

  1. Subclinical - the thyroid gland, reflexively filling in the lack of hormones, grows in size. At the same time, the level of T3 and T4 remains normal, and the TSH indicator is somewhat overestimated.
  2. Manifest - the continuing increase in the level of TSH and a decrease in T4 provokes external manifestations of the disease.
  3. Compensated - hormonal deficiency is replenished with drug therapy.
  4. Decompensated - non-renewable hormone level leads to serious consequences, including cretinism, heart failure and myxedematous coma.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism and the first signs

first signs of hypothyroidism

The clinical picture of hypothyroid failure is associated with a slowdown of metabolic processes and is manifested by symptoms from virtually all organs and systems. So, for the symptoms of hypothyroidism in women are characterized by disorders:

  • Integuments

The first signs of hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland are manifested by fragility of the nails with the formation of grooves on the nail plates, dull color and massive hair loss. Pallor of the skin with flaky lesions and areas of hyperkeratosis on the elbows and feet is noted. Possible weak yellowness due to an increase in the liver, a decrease in body temperature to 35ºС.

For patients with hypothyroidism, a puffy face is characteristic: bags under the eyes, swelling of the lips and tongue (teeth marks on the edges of the tongue), swelling of the legs / arms. Puffiness of the nasal mucosa leads to difficulty breathing and impaired smell.

At the same time, diuretics with a decrease in the daily amount of urine due to inhibition of renal function do not reduce puffiness, only aggravating the failure of water-salt balance.

There is also some weight gain. Curbing the growth of body weight due to lack of appetite and impaired digestion. However, it is almost impossible to lose those extra pounds.

  • A heart

The heart responds to the lack of hormones by bradycardia (less than 55 beats / min), low pressure, arrhythmia, and frequent attacks of the type of angina. The doctor can fix the deafness of heart tones, a change in the T wave on the ECG , expanded borders of the heart.

However, in advanced cases, an atypical reaction of the cardiovascular system is often fixed - persistent tachycardia, hypertension.

  • Musculoskeletal system

Weakness, sometimes reaching complete impotence, due to a decrease in muscle tone, reduced physical endurance. A slow process of muscle relaxation leads to stiffness in movements and periodic convulsive jerking of individual muscles.

In congenital hypothyroidism symptoms of disproportionate development are recorded: shortened limbs with a long body.

  • Nervous system

The state of causeless apathy gradually develops into depression. Memory suffers noticeably, and mental impairment in congenital hypothyroidism leads to the development of cretinism. In this plane, the symptoms of hypothyroidism in women are manifested by numbness of the limbs, problems with vision and hearing.

  • Blood

The hematopoietic system responds to hypothyroid insufficiency with anemia, which increases the manifestations of general weakness. Reduced immunity is manifested by frequent colds. Less commonly, leukopenia is recorded in the blood test.

  • Digestion

Hypothyroidism often causes gastrointestinal symptoms. Intestinal atony leads to constipation, and gastritis occurs with constant pain and agonizing nausea. The process of food digestion is also disturbed - undigested elements are found in feces.

  • Endocrine abnormalities

Hypothyroidism causes a chain of hormonal disorders. Insufficient adrenal function exacerbates the manifestations of the disease. Reproductive function suffers: impotence in men, frigidity and impaired menstrual cycle in women.

Hypothyroidism is an excellent "masker." Often hormonal thyroid insufficiency, especially at the subclinical stage, is confused with heart disease, fatigue syndrome, depression and other diseases.

However, the treatment of hypothyroidism will be effective only if adequate therapy is prescribed with agents that compensate for hormonal insufficiency.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism in women - especially

Symptoms of hypothyroidism in women

Often, the symptoms of hypothyroidism in women remain unheeded: the severity of the condition is in no way tied to the complaints. Puffy face, “extinct” look (with normal functioning of the thyroid gland, the woman's eyes shine!), Problems with hair and nails raise doubts about their own attractiveness.

Often from women with hypothyroid failure, you can hear:

  • Adequate sleep does not bring rest to the body. Morning begins with a feeling of brokenness.
  • I do not want anything, although there is no apparent reason for apathy.
  • Constant chilliness, regardless of the weather and clothing.
  • Pathological forgetfulness, very poor memory (symptoms are often associated with atherosclerosis due to increased cholesterol in hypothyroidism).
  • Fainting due to hypotension and delayed speech.
  • Lack of sexual desire, excess hair throughout the body.
  • The appearance of mastopathy , cystic formations in the breast and uterus.
  • Violation of the menstrual cycle (irregular menstruation), earlier the onset of menopause .

Thyroid hypothyroidism in women may occur during pregnancy due to lack of iodine intake. But if hypothyroidism is limited to the subclinical stage, the woman’s condition returns to normal after childbirth.

Sometimes hypothyroidism continues in the postpartum period, it is associated with inhibition of the pituitary gland.

Diagnosis of hypothyroidism

Diagnosis is based on analysis of thyroid hormone parameters T3, T4 and TSH . Hypothyroidism is diagnosed at the level of thyroxin less than the boundaries of 140-50 nmol / l and triiodothyronine less than 3.85-1.50 mmol / l.

At the same time, the increase in TSH occurs in a logarithmic progression: even with a slight T4 deficiency, a significant increase in TSH is recorded. The degree of insufficiency of the hormones T3 and T4 determines the severity of the disease.

To identify the causative disease, an ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland (detection of nodes), an x-ray or a CT scan of the head is used to exclude a pituitary tumor.

See more about thyroid hormone analysis and thyroid biopsy .

Treatment of hypothyroidism in women, drugs

Treatment of hypothyroidism in women, drugs

The main treatment for hypothyroidism in women is the elimination of hormonal deficiency with the help of synthetic synthetic hormones. Depending on the blood parameters, the doctor individually selects the drug, starting treatment with a minimum dose.

Commonly used therapeutic agents are L-thyroxin, Thyroidin, Thyroxin, Thyrocomb. The effectiveness of the prescribed dose is checked by repeated studies of hormone levels.

Also in the treatment of hypothyroidism are applied dietary supplements like Endonorm. Herbal composition regulates the production of hormone TSH, has a symptomatic effect (normalizes the reproductive system, adrenal glands, improves immunity) and does not have serious side effects, unlike synthetic hormones.

However, dietary supplements are not an alternative substitute for hormone therapy, treatment by Endonorm and others are used only with the approval of the attending endocrinologist.

With timely started treatment of hypothyroidism and regular use of hormonal drugs, the patient remains able to work. At the same time, it is necessary to control the level of hormones twice a year and to adjust the dosage of drugs.

After surgical resection of the thyroid gland, replacement therapy is carried out for life. The most serious side effect of synthetic hormones is the gradual extinction of the functions of the thyroid gland and its atrophy, which leads to an increase in the dosage of drugs.

Hypothyroidism is especially severe in children. The children's brain is especially sensitive to a lack of iodine and thyroid hormones. Delay in physical development is accompanied by low intelligence and poor learning.

Complications

A developing disease is fraught with myocardial infarction, frequent pneumonia and mexedematous coma. Hypothyroid coma most often occurs in older people who forget to take medications prescribed by a doctor for the treatment of hypothyroidism, and threatens the patient's life.

Against the background of a decrease in temperature to 30 ° C, depression of consciousness and respiration occurs, symptoms of heart failure increase, fluid accumulates in the body, and diuresis decreases.

  • Fatal outcome with myxedema coma - up to 40% of patients.
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