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Hyperthyroidism: causes, symptoms and treatment, complications

The largest gland in the human body is the thyroid (thyroid gland). Refers to the group of endocrine glands. Under her control there are processes of general metabolism (exchange) and thermoregulation, stimulation of oxygen uptake and differentiation processes, development of intellectual abilities and complete body composition (puberty) and immunity.

The process of hyperthyroidism of the thyroid gland provokes excessive production of TG (thyroid hormones), due to acceleration in the body of metabolic processes (metabolic processes), provoking a state like poisoning - thyrotoxicosis.

Can be inherited, manifested already in infancy and acquired, develop at any age. Hyperthyroidism in women occurs five times more often than in the "strong half of humanity".


Genesis of hyperthyroidism


According to the teachings of Buddhism, Tibetan monks argue that hyperthyroidism is the product of "Slime" and indignant "Wind", the combination of which generates the accumulation of mucus and negative energy in the throat and the formation of "bad" blood, which causes toxic poisoning of the body.

As for mucus, a big question (in Tibetan medicine, the thyroid gland refers to the mucous constitution) but with the "indignant Wind", personifying the emotional component of a person, modern allopaths and psychologists quite agree.

According to Tibetan physicians, the people who accumulate grievances and negative emotions tend to develop the disease, but are forced to hide them.

Modern treatises of this do not deny and add here excitable and impressionable people who experienced mental trauma and stress. It is these signs, in 95% of cases are the cause of excess production (thyroid) thyroid hormones. What actually explains the priority of susceptibility to the disease of women.

Scientific men - Adolf Basedov, Graves and Plummer summed up the scientific component of the genesis of the development of hyperthyroidism due to:

  1. The formation of a diffuse toxic goiter that increases the size of the thyroid gland, as a result, in 80% of cases, according to Bazedov, excessive hormonal secretion begins.
  2. Excessive production of hormones by cells of multiple nodal neoplasms developing on the gland.
  3. A toxic adenoma developing on the thyroid gland and producing hormones in large quantities is Plummer's disease.

Sometimes in the development of the disease, not the least role is played: excessive consumption of iodine-containing products, long-term use of thyroid hormones in the course of any treatment, or pathology of the pituitary gland.

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism in women and men

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism in women

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism, photo

The variety of signs and symptoms of thyroid hyperthyroidism is caused by a variety of factors, such as the duration of the process, its severity, sex. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism in women, a common phenomenon in certain periods of hormonal failure - in puberty, with gestation and after childbirth, during the extinction of childbearing function. The symptomatology is manifested:

  • Rapid weight loss, while not changing either the usual diet, or load. It is under such conditions that endocrinologists primarily prescribe a study to exclude diabetes and to determine the level of thyroid hormones.
  • Unreasonable sweating and manifestation on the entire body of hot flushes. This is explained by the similarity of the properties of thyroid hormones to the natural proteins of the immune system (interferon), which destroy any infections in the body.
  • Violations of the heart rate, which can not be determined either by nutrition, or by stress, nor by cardiovascular and hematopoietic pathologies.
  • Tremor in the whole body, not dependent on provocative atherosleous and nerve pathologies.
  • Such a decline in forces, that they are not enough even to perform the usual minor loads.
  • A rapid change in mood and nervous excitement is a clear sign of the negative effects of thyroid hormones on the subcortical brain structures.
  • There are no explainable causeless disorders that cause the manifestation of asthenoneurotic syndrome (absent-mindedness, fluttering attention, memory impairment).
  • An unstable chair, which is explained by attempts of the body to independently remove excess thyroxines and tyronines, which dissolve well in a liquid medium.
  • The manifestation of amenorrhea caused by an increase in the blood of provoking hormones. Sometimes, the reversibility of the process does not guarantee timely treatment.
  • The disorder of sexual functions in men, which is due to a high concentration of toxins that inhibit the secretion of testosterone.

An experienced specialist will immediately determine the external signs of hyperthyroidism, which can not always be seen even by people close to the patient, and even by the patient himself. It has a markedly enlarged thyroid zone and neck dimensions. On a certain zone, there is swelling. Respiratory functions are disrupted and swallowing is difficult, the growth of the gland is noticeable.

First of all, the manifestation of signs of puff-eyed (exophthalmos) is alarming. And the severity of puerperium directly depends on the neglect of the disease and the concentration in the blood of thyroid hormones.

The patients themselves notice that the blinking of the eyes becomes less frequent. This is due to loss of sensitivity of the eye structures to external stimuli, which often leads, ultimately, to inflammatory processes of the conjunctiva and inflammation of the eye cornea.

Symptoms of hyperthyroidism

ocelli is a characteristic feature of the disease, photo

The presence of exophthalmos provokes a violation of the function of accommodation of the eye, as a result, even subjects at close range to consider such a patient is very difficult.

High concentration of thyroid hormones can adversely affect the state of blood vessels and heart, showing signs of myocardial dystrophy - arrhythmia and heart pain.

The state of the patient in terms of the degree of severity of the process is determined not by the hormonal concentration in the blood causing the disease, but by the severity of the clinical signs. It can be light, medium and heavy.

Methods for diagnosing hyperthyroidism

In the diagnostic examination and treatment of thyroid hyperthyroidism, a comprehensive approach is used, involving many specialist doctors in the consultation. For the diagnosis of diagnosis use:

  • Examination of the organ by ultrasound.
  • Scintigraphic examination of the functional condition of the gland.
  • Laboratory diagnostics on the concentration of thyroid hormones in the blood by the methods of immunoenzyme, fluorescent, hemifluorometric study and radioisotope method.
  • Immunofluorescence study, to identify antibodies to organ tissues.
  • Scanning thyroid with radioactive iodine.
  • CT of the cervical zone, to identify the localization of nodal neoplasms.

Treatment of hyperthyroidism, drugs

Treatment of hyperthyroidism, drugs

Tirozol and Endonorm for treatment of hyperthyroidism, photo

In most cases, to update the functions of the thyroid can be treated with drug therapy. The protocol for the treatment of hyperthyroidism is selected individually, according to the indications of the diagnosis and the level of hormonal presence in the blood, which is monitored during the course of treatment by correction of hormonal intake.

The drug strategy aims to reduce the synthesis of thyroid hormones and to stabilize their normal levels. The medical process may include surgical techniques (complete or partial resection with an open method or a minimally invasive laser) and treatment of hyperthyroidism with iodine therapy, they all have their risks and dignities. Sometimes a combination is used in the treatment.

Of course, the most important in the treatment of hyperthyroidism is correctly selected medications. Dosage and the course of admission is signed individually.

Independently this should not be done, since a reverse, irreversible process is possible, an excess of hormones can result in their lack - hypothyroidism, which threatens the patient with lifelong intake of drugs.

Essential preparations

  • With an insignificant increase in thyroid function, hormonal synthesis suppressing agents are prescribed - "Tyrozol", "Tiamazol", "Metizol", "Mercazolil", "Carbimazole" or "Propylthiouracil". It is an overdose of these drugs can lead to the opposite effect.
  • Preparations of beta-blockers are Betaxolol, Anaprilin, Bisoprolol, Nibivolol, Atenolol, Talinolol, Metoprolol, Egilok, Egis, Korvitol, and others. The preparations themselves do not affect on the development of hyperthyroidism, their appointment is due to the effect of relaxation of symptoms - reduce the signs of tachycardia and pain manifestations in the heart, gently normalize the pressure and arrhythmic states.
  • The drug "Endonorm", in the treatment of hyperthyroidism is prescribed to maintain the function of the gland, in the initial period of the disease.
  • It is absolutely necessary to take sedatives - "Valoserdin", "Persen" or "Novo-Passit". This will help normalize sleep, alleviate nervousness and prevent psychological breakdowns.
  • In autoimmune genesis (with ophthalmopathy and adrenal insufficiency syndrome) of hyperthyroidism, preparations of glucocorticoids - "Prednisolone" or "Dexamethasone" are prescribed.
  • When exhausted, accompanied by intoxication symptoms and diarrhea, anabolic medications such as "Methandriol" or "Methandienone" may be recommended.

In the treatment of hyperthyroidism in women, the factor is more labile than in men of the nervous system. In addition, drugs of hypnotics, axiolytics, which reduce emotionality and tranquilizers-calming medications are prescribed.

Possible complications and consequences

The probability of serious complications is caused by the absence of any treatment of background pathology at all, which can be complicated by thyrotoxic heart (complex cardiovascular function disorder) or thyrotoxic crisis (coma).

Appears due to high hormone levels - ciliary arrhythmia, increased blood pressure, progressive chronic course of concomitant pathology.

The risk of developing a crisis is more vulnerable to women. It can provoke - heavy loads, infectious pathologies and stresses. The symptomatology is manifested by the progression of growth - from fever and disturbances of consciousness, to coma and death.

The consequences of hyperthyroidism can be very diverse, provoking pathologies in any organs and systems of the body, since all tissues and cells are hormone-dependent from thyroid. This can begin as a chronic fatigue, and end with a complete loss of reproductive functions, both in women and men.

Preventive measures

Preventive maintenance of disease is simple and quite feasible. Includes - a systematic planned examination of the endocrinologist, especially those with a congenital predisposition to endocrine pathologies.

Strengthen immunity by hardening, since cold infections are a predisposing factor in the development of autoimmune pathologies. Properly eat and avoid a long stay in the sun.


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