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Hygroma - what is it? Photo, methods of treatment of cones on the joints, surgery

Once there are "bumps" in the joints of the wrist and fingers, on the foot for a long time can not cause a person anxiety. In such cases, most often we are talking about hygrome.

A doctor is usually treated in cases where the seal begins to grow in size and hurt. And the most imprudent option is to listen to "all-knowing" acquaintances and start squeezing the hygrom. The terrible pain and risk of joint inflammation are almost inevitable. What is hygroma, how to properly treat it - this knowledge will allow time to get rid of trouble and avoid its reappearance.


Hygroma - what is it?

Hygroma - what is it

Hygroma is a cystic seal that forms near the joint and is benign. The formation is surrounded by a dense membrane associated with the synovial articular bag or vagina, and is filled with serous fluid.

When taking it for microscopic examination (hygroma puncture), mucus and the inclusion of fibrin can be detected, which gives the contents of the cyst a jelly-like character. The cystic cavity is always connected to the synovial bag.

Most often, hygroma forms in the area of ​​the wrist joint, somewhat less frequently on the fingers and toes, and in the area of ​​the ankle. Very rarely, cystic formation forms in the armpit, on the knee joint and elbow.

At the same time one or several consolidations (multichamber hygroma) with a diameter up to 3 cm is found. Dense to the touch cystic formation is inactive due to fixation to the articular bag.

Typically, a cyst grows extremely slowly, but there is a rapid increase in size due to the effect of provoking factors (injuries, inflammation).

Hygroma is diagnosed at any age and in most cases does not pose a threat of cancer transformation. Delivering aesthetic discomfort, even hygroma of small size can cause pain and problems with wearing shoes.

Causes of hygroma, symptoms

hygroma photo

hygroma photo

There is no reliably definite cause of the occurrence of hygromy There are several theories in the medical community about this:

  • Inflammatory - a scar is formed at the site of damage (rupture) of the synovial sac, but an uneven load leads to an uneven protrusion of the membrane and its exit beyond the tendon capsule.
  • Tumor - hygroma is perceived as a benign neoplasm with uncontrolled dividing cells of the synovial membrane. At the same time, the growth of atypical cells is directed to the tissues surrounding the joint.
  • Dysmetabolic - disrupts the synthesis of synovial fluid. Its enhanced secretion leads to bulging of the capsule and the formation of cystic formation.

To the formation of hygromas predispose:

  • Monotonous activities associated with fine motor skills - working at the computer, sewing and embroidery, playing musical instruments (piano, violin);
  • Fractures, bruises and sprains (especially with inadequate treatment and insufficient rehabilitation) - excessive load on the joint leads to damage to the articular sac;
  • Prolonged microtrauma of the joints - a game of tennis, badminton, golf;
  • Hereditary predisposition - frequent dislocations and inflammatory diseases of the joints in relatives in previous generations.
  • There are cases when hygroma occurs for no apparent reason.

The disease is manifested by a slight compaction of a round or irregular shape. Characteristic features of hygroma:

  1. A clear connection with the joint - the seal is sedentary;
  2. Small sizes - from 5 mm, the tumor grows to 3 cm, hygromas are rarely diagnosed with a size of 5-6 cm;
  3. The skin over the tumor is not changed;
  4. The neoplasm is painless, aching pain occurs when pressing.

Depending on the localization of the tumor-like formation, specific symptoms join the above signs.

Hygroma of the wrist and fingers

Hygroma wrist photo In addition to the aesthetic discomfort of hygroma on the arm, especially to achieve large sizes, it can cause compression of nearby vessels and nerves.

The seal can move under the skin along with the vagina of the joint or be fixed, provided it grows out of the synovial capsule. With prolonged pressure on the cyst, formed from the capsule of the joint, a small depression is formed on the surface.

Characteristic features of hygroma of different localization:

Hygroma of the wrist (rear or palmar surface of the joint) - occurs most often. With increasing compaction, compression of the radial artery is possible, which is manifested by increasing pain in the thumb.

Treatment of the hygroma of the wrist without an operation with home remedies is fraught with an increase in tumor size and compression of the nerves.

Damage to the ulnar nerve is manifested by the soreness and numbness of the part of the middle finger, little finger and ring finger that increases with prolonged bending. Compression of the radial nerve decreases sensitivity in the thumb, index and middle fingers.

The posterior interosseous nerve produces a decrease in sensitivity on the back of the wrist and hand. Compression of the palatine nerve leads to low skin sensitivity of the large, middle, index fingers and the part of the palm to be under them.

Cystic formations on the back of the hand - reach no more than 2 cm. Growing from articular capsules (mezhapyastnye and carpal-metacarpal joints), such a hygroma on the hand is quite dense and almost motionless. Compression of nerves and blood vessels occurs extremely rarely.

The finger hygroma is often multiple, small, immobile formations capable of forming along the entire length of the fingers. Cause a person to have strong experiences in terms of aesthetics and reduce performance.

Hygroma on foot (knees, feet, toes)

Hygroma on foot

Hygroma on the leg can be formed both on large knee joints and on small ones (foot). Symptomatic picture depends on the localization of cystic formation.

The hygroma of the knee ( Baker's cyst ) is the result of a long-term current arthrosis or rheumatoid arthritis, possibly its appearance after untreated intra-articular hematomas. In the popliteal, less often the lateral area of ​​the joint, a rounded seal with a size of up to 10 cm is formed.

In the popliteal fossa hygroma badly palpable. Prolonged compression of the hygroma leads to its temporary softening: cystic fluid migrates into the articular cavity.

Baker's cyst reduces the knee flexion angle. When flexing with the use of force, weakness of the calf muscles appears. "Running" goose bumps are replaced by increasing pain, the skin turns pale. This picture indicates compression of the superior and peroneal nerves, popliteal artery.

Hygroma of the foot - weakness of the foot with flat-footedness often leads to the formation of capsular cysts on the sole. Very dense, immobile formations are often perceived as bone growths.

Cystic formation on the ankle - occur on the background of serious injuries (tendon rupture, sprains, sprains). Clinic of compression of blood vessels does not appear due to the developed circulatory system.

Probably nerve compression, leading to a decrease in motor activity (weakness) and partial loss of sensation in the foot.

Hygroma on the toe - initially painless compaction is squeezed by shoes when walking. Trauma leads not only to the appearance of pain, which increases with the movement, but also to an inflammatory reaction of the surrounding tissues.

The skin over the hygroma reddens, puffiness and a slight increase in local temperature appear. Even a slight growth of such a tumor is fraught with compression of nerves and blood vessels.

Hygroma in children - features

Hygroma in children The appearance of cystic formations in the area of ​​the joints in children is associated with either low or excessive physical activity. Elastic tendons and ligaments in childhood are most susceptible to stretching, and muscle weakness leads to even greater stress on the joint.

Hygroma in childhood is more often formed on the back of the hand and the palm of the wrist, under the knee or on the sole. It is not excluded intrauterine formation hygrom. Hygrom treatment without surgery is impossible even in children.

In any case, surgical excision is necessary: ​​at the age of 10 years - under general anesthesia, in older children - with local anesthesia.

Hygroma treatment - methods, surgery

Hygroma treatment

No matter how much a person with a hygroma would like, it is impossible to avoid an operation No drug can even reduce the size of the cyst. Only surgical removal of the hygroma eliminates its recurrence and prevents the development of purulent bursitis / tendovaginitis.

  • Crush hygroma

использовать методику раздавливания кисты. It is especially dangerous to use the cyst crush technique. At best, cystic fluid will move to the joint cavity, and after a while the hygroma will reappear.

In the worst case of such treatment, a rupture of the cyst membrane and further inflammation, up to a purulent process, occurs. At the same time crushing the cyst causes unbearable pain.

  • Drug treatment

In cases of onset of inflammation (special crush or involuntary compression during movement), the treatment of hygroma begins with drug therapy.

For the treatment of aseptic inflammation with hygrome (moderate pain, lack of complete stiffness in the joint, temperature up to 37.5 ° C) are used:

  1. NSAIDs - Nimesil tablets 1 week. and Diclofenac ointment for 2 weeks;
  2. Antihistamines - Bravegil, Clemastin 7-10 days;
  3. Corticosteroids - topically in the form of an ointment (the best - Diprosalic), apply no more than 1 week. to avoid the development of skin atrophy;
  4. Physiotherapy - UHF, magnetic therapy, salt baths.

Purulent inflammation in the case of bursting hygromas is accompanied by intense throbbing pain, hyperthermia up to 40.0 ° C and considerable joint stiffness.

At the same time, none of the modern antibiotics can level the rapidly developing purulent process. Treatment of purulent inflammation is always surgical with antibiotic therapy in the postoperative period.

  • Hygroma puncture

Sometimes surgeons perform hygroma puncture and fluid pumping. However, this procedure is more relevant in terms of temporary relief of the condition (the cyst will necessarily grow again), as well as to differentiate the seal from oncology, to reveal suppurative inflammation.

The simultaneous introduction of a sclerosing substance into the cyst cavity is not always effective. It is possible that sclerosant enters the articular cavity and the development of adhesions, leading to immobilization of the joint.

  • Operation - Hygroma Removal

With significant hygroma size, symptoms of compression of nerves and blood vessels, as well as with purulent inflammation, planned or emergency surgery is necessary.

Surgical treatment of hygroma of the wrist, knee and foot is performed under local anesthesia (except for children up to 10 years), through a small incision.

The operation on excision of the cyst together with the capsule (it is necessary to remove all its parts in order to avoid re-growth) takes 20-30 mn., Is rather easily tolerated by the patient and does not require prolonged hospitalization.

Only with purulent inflammation, inpatient treatment, including injections of antibiotics, continues until full recovery. For the speedy restoration of joint functions and the prevention of the development of adhesions, massage and physiotherapy exercises are prescribed.


With hygroma, especially for small tumors without signs of compression, doctors give a favorable prognosis. You should not be afraid of the operation: a minimal traumatic surgical intervention guarantees the disappearance of a cyst forever.

Self-treatment and, moreover, crushing the hygroma at home is fraught with serious consequences, long-term treatment, and sometimes residual joint stiffness.


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