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Hemorrhoids: causes, symptoms and treatment, inflammation of the node

Hemorrhoids are quite common pathologies in the proctological field (up to 40%). The frequency of detection of the disease among the adult population is 12-15%, and in every third case surgical treatment is required due to neglect of the disease.

Hemorrhoids can be formed at any age, but most often this affects middle-aged people (the incidence rate is the same for female and male).

Content

Causes of hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoid node

Prerequisites for the development of hemorrhoids are formed in the prenatal period. At this time, changes occur in the cavernous bodies of the rectum:

  • They expand;
  • The number of vessels feeding the vessel wall increases (such is the tautology), which creates conditions for the excess blood filling of the cavernous formations;
  • Gradual hardening (growth of connective tissue fibers) of the venous wall.

The causes of the formation of hemorrhoids after birth include 2 components:

  1. Vascular (changes in hemodynamics of rectal veins), initiating the onset of the disease. It is based on dysfunction of the vascular wall, which causes an increased venous blood supply. As a result, their wall is stretched and knots are formed. At the same time, due to the increased vascular pressure, arteriovenous fistulas (anastomoses) in the arterial section expand, further aggravating the existing disorders.
  2. Mechanical joining in the later stages of the disease. Constant pressure of the nodes on the longitudinal muscle of the rectum and ligamentous apparatus (Parks' ligament, which normally keeps the cavernous bodies and veins within the intestine) leads to dystrophy in these anatomical structures. This is a prerequisite for further loss of hemorrhoids outside. The process becomes irreversible.

Causes of hemorrhoids To date, the exact reasons for the development of hemorrhoids have not been established. All the above factors and mechanisms are predisposing. However, their realization in the disease becomes possible under certain conditions characterized by an increase in pressure in the rectum:

  • Frequent constipation;
  • Long sitting in a sitting position;
  • Lifting heavy objects;
  • Hypodynamia.

A large role in the development of the disease is given to the use of alcohol. Ethyl alcohol directly contributes to the development of dystrophic changes in the vascular wall of the rectum veins. As a result, it becomes thinner and bulges.

Women have another reason - pregnancy and childbirth. Very often, hemorrhoids after birth are diagnosed for the first time. On the one hand, it depends on the increase in intra-abdominal pressure, and on the other, on hormonal changes.

According to epidemiological studies, the disease among young non-pregnant women occurs in 8% of cases, and during pregnancy the detection rate increases by 3 times (up to 25%), in the postpartum period, about half of women have hemorrhoids at different stages of development.

Inflammation of the hemorrhoid, photo

Inflammation of the hemorrhoid

hemorrhoid inflammation photo

The symptoms of hemorrhoidal inflammation are characterized by a number of local signs and an intense pain syndrome. Local changes include:

  1. Dark cherry coloration due to plethora;
  2. Tension knot;
  3. A sharp increase in pain when feeling the fallen node;
  4. Anal area with inflammatory signs (swelling, redness, shiny appearance, the presence of pathological secretions).

The pain causes the patient to restrain the act of defecation. Against this background, pathological changes are even more progressing. Inflammation passes to the entire perineum, causing the appearance of dysuric disorders (difficulty and pain in urination).

If a hemorrhoidal site has fallen out and has become inflamed, this condition may resemble purulent paraproctitis , with which the doctor performs a differential diagnosis. The main features of paraproctitis are:

  • Unilateral lesion;
  • Limited infiltration covering the anus;
  • One of the walls of the rectum infiltrated and sharply painful during rectal examination;
  • Throbbing pains that keep the patient awake;
  • Increased temperature.

для жизни человека, т.к. The state is a serious danger to human life, because threatens the development of sepsis . Therefore, when such signs appear, you should immediately visit the proctologist.

Hemorrhoid Symptoms

Hemorrhoid Symptoms

The clinical symptoms of hemorrhoids depend on the location of the nodes. The external hemorrhoid is located around the anus directly under the skin. This formation is covered with epithelium consisting of several layers.

Internal hemorrhoids are hidden in the ampulla of the rectum and are covered outside with a submucosal layer. Therefore, when visually inspected, they are often not detected (as long as they do not fall out). For the diagnosis requires a rectal examination, which produces a proctologist.

The disease is characterized by a chronic course. Periods of exacerbation are most often provoked by constipation, developing for various reasons (violation of nutritional principles, insufficient fluid intake, iron supplementation for the treatment of anemia, etc.).

But it is possible and acute course of pathology, based on - hemorrhoidal thrombosis . It is of two types:

  • Thrombosis of the external node;
  • Thrombosis of the internal node.

A particularly vivid clinical picture has spasm of the anal sphincter, leading to pinching of the node and impaired blood circulation. His symptoms are:

  1. Acute pain in the anus;
  2. Swelling of tissues;
  3. Increased node and swelling;
  4. The impossibility of his reposition in the rectum (this causes the sharpest pain).

In the absence of treatment, the strangulated node may necrotize, causing a rise in temperature. Bleeding appears due to the destruction of the vessel.

Diagnosis of hemorrhoid

The initial diagnosis of hemorrhoids is based on an assessment of clinical symptoms.

The main one is bleeding (in Latin, hemorrhoids and means bleeding), which affects about half of the patients with this diagnosis. The appearance of blood from the rectum is always associated with the act of defecation. Unlike other diseases, the blood is scarlet.

The second important feature is the presence of fallen out hemorrhoids. There may be other related symptoms and signs:

  • Itching in the anal area;
  • The discomfort;
  • Feeling of incomplete bowel movement;
  • Nodes are perceived as something foreign in the rectum.

The second stage of diagnosis involves a rectal examination, which allows to determine the stage of the process. The first stage is characterized by the absence of prolapse of nodes from the rectum.

In the second stage, they fall out in the process of defecation, but then they set off on their own, which in the third stage no longer occurs (manual manual is required). In the fourth stage, the nodes are constantly outside the anus (in the prolapsed state).

Hemorrhoid treatment

Hemorrhoid treatment

Treatment of hemorrhoids is carried out in three main ways (the choice in favor of a particular method depends on the stage of the disease):

  1. Drug therapy;
  2. Minimally invasive interventions;
  3. Surgical intervention (removal of hemorrhoids).

Conservative therapy of hemorrhoids is indicated in the first or second stage of the chronic process and in acute course. It involves the systemic use of phlebotonics (Diosmin) in combination with local preparations (Natalcide, Proktozan, Relief, etc.).

The latter are aimed at:

  • Reduction of pain;
  • Stop bleeding;
  • Relief of inflammation;
  • Prevention of thrombosis.

If drug therapy is ineffective, then minimally invasive or surgical intervention is performed. This usually occurs in the third or fourth stage of the disease. Minimally invasive treatment includes several different techniques:

  • The introduction of sclerosing substances;
  • Hemorrhoid ligation;
  • Infrared coagulation;
  • Cryodestruction;
  • Laser coagulation;
  • Disarterization of hemorrhoids;
  • Electrical coagulation.

The advantages of minimally invasive interventions over traditional surgical procedures are obvious:

  1. The absence of wound surfaces and strong pain syndrome after surgery;
  2. Enough one-day inpatient stay;
  3. A quick return to the usual life (after 1-2 days);
  4. High efficiency techniques (especially dearterization - ligation of hemorrhoidal arteries).

Hemorrhoidectomy is the removal of a hemorrhoid. The operation is performed if:

  • an internal hemorrhoid with a mucous membrane has fallen;
  • outdoor units are large.

Also, the operation is performed if the doctor does not own the technique of minimally invasive interventions. According to statistics, the prevalence of hemorrhoidectomy in proctology departments to date has reached 75%.

Hemorrhoid treatment at home

Inflamed hemorrhoid - what to do at home? In addition to the pharmacological treatment prescribed by the doctor, it is recommended to perform a number of procedures yourself:

  • chamomile and sage trays having a temperature of 37 °. The duration of the bath is 15-20 minutes. These herbs reduce the activity of the existing inflammatory process;
  • candles from fresh potatoes, which are introduced into the anus;
  • ice candles, which temporarily reduce the severity of pain.

And what to do if the hemorrhoidal node got out? At home, you can perform microclysters on the basis of decoctions of medicinal plants, which strengthen the vascular wall and arrest the inflammatory response.

At the same time, self-prepared rectal suppositories based on beeswax, propolis and honey are introduced. Systematically take decoctions of horse chestnut. This plant contains many nutrients that directly strengthen the vascular wall.

  • How to make an enema at home to yourself?

Prevention of hemorrhoids

After removal of hemorrhoids, preventive measures are very important, which will prevent the recurrence of the disease. They will help patients with burdened heredity, but not yet having the disease.

To prevent hemorrhoids in women and men are recommended:

  • Proper nutrition. It should be enriched with fiber, which is a stimulant of intestinal peristalsis. This is an excellent means of preventing and treating constipation (see diet at the ports ).
  • The optimum water load is at least 2 liters per day. Fluid is necessary for swelling in the intestines of the incoming fiber.
  • Physical activity. It is enough to make regular walks at an intense pace.
  • Restriction of weight lifting. It is advisable not to lift a weight of 5 kg or more.
  • Perfection of hygiene perineum after each act of defecation (it is recommended to wash with cool water, which reduces the blood supply of the rectum).
  • Regular exercise charging the pelvic muscles. The simplest is to compress and unclench the anus.
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