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Furunculosis - causes and treatment, photos, infectiousness, especially in children

What it is? Furunculosis is a contagious (contact) disease that is a part of an extensive group of staphylodermas that affect the hair follicles, skin, and the structure of connective tissues at great depths, forming purulent-necrotic foci (photo).

Appears as a result of extensive damage to the skin by single purulent formations (boils), occurring one by one in a short time period. It is characterized by acute limited and widespread, sometimes passing into the chronic stage.

The causative agents of the disease are pathogenic staphylococci - Staphylococcus aureus, which have the special property of isolating the golden pigment (sometimes white) with strong disease-causing properties.

Content

Causes of furunculosis

Furunculosis

  • Furunculosis can manifest itself as the primary form of the disease, developing on perfectly healthy (before the illness) skin.
  • As a secondary form, due to the complicated processes that are present at the moment deep or superficial staphylodermia.

Various factors influence the development of the disease - first of all, the pathogenic properties of bacteria and their virulence (degree of infectiousness), the predisposing causes are internal and external.

The main exogenous cause of furunculosis (external) is due to the creation of a “gateway” for the introduction of infection, in the form of small wound skin lesions caused by scratching, rubbing of clothing, or traumatic injury. An important role in the development of large foci of furunculosis is played by internal factors:

  • endocrine system pathologies and metabolic disorders (diabetes, obesity);
  • diseases of the nervous system and gastrointestinal tract;
  • anemia and hypovitaminosis;
  • constant exposure to cold or overheating, leading to a decrease in immune reactivity;
  • chronic alcoholism ;
  • long-term treatment with antibacterial drugs, cytostatics or hormones.

The reasons for the development of pathological purulent furunculosis can be supplemented by many more factors, so that preventive measures and the treatment of furunculosis, the causes of which are not clarified, will not bring the desired effect and the disease will take on a chronic form.

Symptoms of furunculosis, photo

Signs of furunculosis

Signs of furunculosis photo

The signs of the development of purulent processes begins with the formation of small sizes of inflammatory purulent infiltrates in the area of ​​the hair follicle.

After some time, the inflammatory reaction captures the hair follicle itself, the excretory duct of the sebaceous gland and the adjacent structure of the connective tissue. Appearing above the skin surface inflamed cone-shaped knot.

Hyperhydration in the focus of inflammation is accompanied by increased swelling and psychogenic throbbing pains, the formation of extensive compaction (infiltration). After three days, in the center of the seal appears elastic movable cavity with purulent contents. At the root zone of the hair, you can see a small abscess with elements of histolysis (tissue melting), which subsequently forms fistulous passages.

At the opening of one of the boils, pus is released outside, accumulated on top of the inflamed node, leaving behind a not too deep sore with localization at the bottom of the green necrotic rod.

After 4, 5 days, the rod with a small amount of pus and blood is rejected. The inflammatory reaction stops, the swelling subsides and the pain goes away.

furunculosis inflammation of pus

The wound, filled with grainy connective tissue, is tightened, leaving behind a small retracted scar (slightly visible afterwards).

If the rejection is not complete, or pus and necrotic tissue remain in the wound, this gives rise to the formation of chronic furunculosis with elements of boils of varying severity.

Localization of individual purulent fragments may be different and appear in any parts of the body. If the formation of single, special changes in health status is not marked. But with the localization of boils on the face in the nose or ear, there may be unpleasant symptoms in the form:

  • manifestations of intoxication syndrome;
  • migraine and soreness of adjacent tissues;
  • severe swelling of the face and cyanosis of the skin.
furunculosis on the face

photo 4

The spread of furunculosis in the face and the dissociation of staphylococcus bacteria into the internal organs contributes to the trauma of boils, when washing or self-extrusion. What can be manifested by vascular thrombophlebitis of the face and internal staphylococcal infection of the body.

  1. Infection may appear with possible blockage of lymphatic and venous channels with the spread of infection to the brain and the development of septic phlebitis, if the localization of the furunculosis element is in the zone of the nose and upper lip.
  2. Localization in the zone of lymph nodes on the hips, neck and chest, can result in the development of lymphadenitis or lymphangitis with any depth of damage.
  3. There is a risk of penetration of metastasis of boils into various organs, affecting the blood vessels, muscles and tendons, causing massive inflammatory foci.
  4. Penetration into the blood threatens the development of sepsis .

Contagious furunculosis or not?

Contagious furunculosis

The furunculosis itself belongs to the conditionally infectious diseases. What does this mean? This means that when sneezing or coughing boils on healthy skin is not jumped. Staphylococcus bacteria, which spread very easily, are very infectious. They are easily infected in the domestic environment, but this does not mean that the infection should manifest itself furunculosis.

A good, strong immune defense of the body will not allow the development of the disease and the person becomes a simple carrier of the infection.

It is the weak immunity that often contributes to the development of furunculosis in children. How does this happen?

Furunculosis in children - features

Populating in the skin or mucous membranes, staphylococcus bacteria can by constant contact of the child with the carrier of the infection, especially if she is in the active phase of development, or by contact with objects belonging to the carrier.

In cases where there is a child and a carrier of infection in a family, doctors recommend that all family members be given a decolonization procedure to reduce the number of bacteria on the skin and mucous membranes. This will help reduce the risk of infecting the baby.

The development of furunculosis in children is always associated with a weakened immune system. Infected children of all ages. Localization of boils on the face of the most dangerous, and their strong distribution, can be triggered by a cold infection and complicated by meningitis or ophthalmic pathologies.

Furunculosis in children

Furunculosis in children photo

With a weakened immune system, the pathological process can be provoked - overheating of the child, disturbances in the thermoregulation of the body, manifested by increased sweating and interruptions in the metabolic processes.

In the absence of complications, the duration of the cycle of development of furunculosis in children is one and a half weeks (no more than 10 days). Manifesting itself:

  • skin redness and soreness;
  • the development of inflammatory processes and an increase in the tissues of the lymphoid nodes adjacent to furuncles;
  • fever with a high temperature (up to 38 degrees and above);
  • pain symptoms in the area of ​​suppurations;
  • indifference to food and apathy.

Without forcible intervention, boils spontaneously open up, necrotic masses, purulent contents along with the rod are ejected outward, the funnel-shaped cavity heals for a long time, then tightens and the pain passes.

Therapeutic boils, antibiotics and drugs

The whole therapeutic process of furunculosis is carried out under the supervision of a dermatologist. Self-treatment of furunculosis at home with the Vishnevsky antiseptic liniment is often complicated by the spread of purulent processes, damage to deep tissue layers and rapid damage to muscles and tendons.

The use of liniment is possible only at the stage of breakthrough of the capsule with pus, during the period of granulation of the cavity. Independent removal of the boils core is unacceptable.

Early opening of the abscess and removal of pus, threatened by contamination of the adjacent healthy tissue with a pathogen, and not a fully attached rod, can serve the development of chronic processes.

  1. During the treatment of furunculosis it is necessary to limit the ingress of water to the affected areas. In the stage of extensive lesion, disinfection of the skin is recommended with a slightly colored, fresh manganese solution.
  2. To prevent bacterial contamination of healthy tissues, it is wiped with antiseptic solutions - furatsilin, salicylic alcohol. The slightest wounds should be treated with brilliant green or iodine.
  3. Bed linen and underwear should be changed regularly.
  4. The diet should be enriched with vitamin and protein foods, it helps to improve tissue regeneration.
  5. With abundant localization of elements of furunculosis, in order to disinfect them, during the period of maturation, wiping of suppurations with antiseptics, or piercing around the zone of inflammation with an antibiotic with novocaine solution, are performed.
  6. Therapy for furunculosis with antimicrobial drugs using electrophoresis is prescribed to prevent possible complications - abscess or phlegmon .
  7. During a period of noticeable fluctuation (the appearance of pus), application dressings are applied with sodium salicylate, which has a softening and dissolving effect that accelerates the resorption of the infiltrate and the early rejection of the necrotic rod.
  8. Phlegmonous, abscessing purulent pathology requires surgical intervention to open the formation. Under local anesthesia, the cavity is cleaned of pus and necrotic tissues, followed by an aniseptic treatment and application of an antibiotic ointment — Erythromycin and Sintomycin or Levomikol. The procedure for wound treatment is carried out every two days. At the stage of the granulation process of the wound, means with an ichthyol base are applied.
  9. Ultra-high-frequency and ultraviolet therapy dosed applied at any stages of the disease.
  10. Antibiotics for furunculosis are prescribed for abscess processes - “Erythromycin” or “Clarithromycin”. Their intravenous administration is indicated in the presence of background diseases, depletion of the body and to enhance the immune defense.
  11. Increases the body's resistance - ozone therapy, fortifying drug therapy, ultraviolet irradiation of blood and the introduction into the body of a fraction of whey proteins (gamma globulin).

Prevention of furunculosis contributes to the timely treatment of pustular and systemic pathologies, keeping the skin clean.

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