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Decryption of analyzes

Forms of pulmonary tuberculosis, as the first signs are transmitted in the early stages

Tuberculosis is known since ancient times, exploring the human remains of the Stone Age, scientists have found deviations characteristic of this disease.

In ancient Egypt, doctors described the symptoms of tuberculosis: debilitating wet cough with blood and fever, debilitating the patient. And today, in the 21st century, the problem of tuberculosis in society is still relevant.


Pulmonary tuberculosis - what is it?

Tuberculosis development, photo

Tuberculosis development, photo

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that is caused by specific bacteria called Koch sticks. They are named after the German scientist Robert Koch who discovered them.

According to the WHO, every third person is the carrier of the pathogen, but only if there are favorable conditions can it cause the disease.

Annually in the world about 10 million cases of tuberculosis are registered, one third of them ends in death.

Since the Koch wand multiplies rapidly in unsanitary conditions, it is believed that the disease occurs only among the poor, but everyone can get sick with tuberculosis, regardless of age or position in society.

Forms of tuberculosis are easy, classification

Depending on the infectiousness of the patient, the following forms of pulmonary tuberculosis are distinguished:

  • Open form. When the patient coughs, the pathogen is released into the environment, infecting others. In the study of smear with pulmonary secretion, Koch's wand is found.
  • Closed form. At the same time, a person suffers from tuberculosis, not emitting bacilli or infecting others.

For the development of tuberculosis:

  • Primary. In this form, the bacterium enters the body for the first time and may not appear for a long time. It ends with the formation of light areas of hardening.
  • Secondary. Arises from the primary, due to the weakening of the body, for example, after a cold.

Depending on the distribution and localization of inflammatory foci, there are forms of tuberculosis:

Disseminated. A large number of small, dense areas with a high concentration of Koch sticks are formed in the lung tissue. He is subacute or chronic. It develops slowly, can not disturb for years.

Miliary Inflammatory foci occur not only in the lungs, but also in the tissues of the liver, spleen and brain membranes. In most cases, it proceeds in an acute form with symptoms of intoxication of the body.

Focal. In the lung tissue are determined by a few, small areas of hardening. It has a sluggish flow.

Infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. In one or both lungs are determined tuberculous foci, in the center of which is the zone of necrosis. It can clinically manifest nothing and is found by chance on an x-ray.

Caseous pneumonia. Severe form of pathology, in which decay sites are observed in the lung tissue. They eventually dissolve with the formation of cavities.

Tuberculoma. In the lungs petrification sites are formed, with a diameter of up to 5 cm. They can be single or multiple.

Cavernous. Formed areas of lack of tissue, around which there is a slight inflammation. This form develops with the progression of other types of tuberculosis.

Fibrous-cavernous. A dense fibrous ring is formed around the formed voids. It occurs as a complication of the cavernous form.

Cirrotic. It is characterized by the replacement of normal tissue with connective tissue and arises from other forms of the disease.

How is pulmonary tuberculosis transmitted?

A person becomes infected with tuberculosis mainly by air, and rarely by food. It is transmitted by inhalation by a healthy person of microscopic parts of the patient’s pulmonary secretions. For the development of pulmonary tuberculosis, the concentration of Koch sticks must be sufficiently high.

Therefore, infection often occurs with prolonged, reusable contact with the patient. An exception is an open form, in which infection occurs many times faster. But not always the presence of the pathogen means the development of tuberculosis.

Only under favorable conditions for the bacterium can the disease develop and symptoms and first signs of pulmonary tuberculosis appear.

Active reproduction Koch sticks contribute to:

  • Weakening of the body after flu or cold.
  • Reduced immunity.
  • The presence of hormonal diseases.
  • Chronic diseases.
  • Diseases of the respiratory tract.

Signs of tuberculosis in the early stages of an adult

The incubation period depends on the body's resistance and can last up to several years. In the early stages, the immune system is activated, destroying the pathogen. If for some reason it does not cope well with its functions, tuberculous foci develop in the lungs.

Signs of tuberculosis in the early stages of an adult

The first signs of tuberculosis infection in an adult:

  1. Frequent causeless vertigo.
  2. Weakness.
  3. Insomnia and sweating at night.
  4. Pale skin.
  5. Weight loss.
  6. Bad appetite.
  7. Constant low temperature, up to 37 degrees.

If a person is worried about one or more of these symptoms, you need to visit a doctor and have an x-ray of your lungs.

Read more: symptoms and first signs of tuberculosis

With further progression of the process, the following symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis are observed:

  • Persistent dry or wet cough.
  • Shortness of breath, appearing even at rest.
  • Wheezing, heard by the doctor while listening.
  • Fever, especially in the morning.
  • Eyes shine, skin is pale.
  • Sharp unreasonable weight reduction.
  • Sputum with blood.
  • Pain in the sternum, while inhaling and at rest.

Recent symptoms indicate a severe form of tuberculosis that needs emergency treatment.

Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

radiography for tuberculosis, diagnostic methods

It begins with the collection of complaints with the further appointment of instrumental and laboratory research. On examination, the doctor draws attention to the increase in lymph nodes and the presence of wheezing when listening to the phonendoscope.

If suspected of having tuberculosis, a Mantoux test is performed. The Koch bacterium antigen is injected subcutaneously and the injection site is carefully inspected after a couple of days. If a pathogen is present, a large red spot will be observed. But there are cases when the Mantoux test gives incorrect results.

An informative method for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis is radiography. X-ray shows characteristic changes in lung tissue, but it is impossible with a 100% guarantee to tell whether it is tuberculosis.

The next stage is the examination of sputum. It is made three times, after a certain time. If Koch's wand is found in the sputum and there are changes on the X-ray, anti-tuberculosis treatment is prescribed.

Additional methods of diagnosis include bronchoscopy , puncture of the pleura and biopsy.

Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in adults

Treatment is prescribed taking into account the stage and form of tuberculosis, bacterial activity. It should be long and not interrupted. For the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in adults, there are regimens that include the appointment of from three to five specific drugs. Only together they will destroy the pathogen bacterium, unauthorized intervention in the treatment procedure is unacceptable.

Additionally prescribed drugs enhance immunity and physiotherapy. For severe tuberculosis, surgical treatment is performed - removal of damaged areas of the lungs.

With timely diagnosis and the appointment of adequate treatment, tuberculosis is cured completely and without consequences.

If the disease is started, treatment is prescribed late or incorrectly, as well as with a complex form of the disease - there are defects in the lungs that affect their function for life.

The risk of recurrence of tubercular foci in the lung tissue increases. A person who has ever found a Koch wand should be in the dispensary.

Every second untreated case of tuberculosis ends with the death of the patient. Concomitant diseases worsen the prognosis.

In severe cases, complications are possible:

Prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis

tuberculosis vaccine

The basis of prevention is a clinical examination of the population for the purpose of early diagnosis. It is desirable for each person to do an x-ray of the lungs every year
Specific prevention begins in the hospital. The newborn is given the BCG vaccine - a small amount of Koch inactive sticks.

It is necessary for the formation of immunity against tuberculosis. Vaccine administration does not guarantee that a person will not get sick. However, it can carry a mild form of tuberculosis. Re-vaccine is administered after 5 years.

Annually determine the reaction - Mantoux test. If it is slightly positive, it means that the person has strong immunity.

Trying to avoid contact with patients is not a guarantee against infection with tuberculosis, but will significantly reduce the risk of infection.

Another important factor is a healthy diet and the right way of life, which stimulates good immunity. In this case, if the Koch sticks hit, the immune system will cope with it.


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