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Fibrocystic mastopathy: symptoms and treatment, prevention

Mastopathy is a disease in which small seals, cords, nodules and cysts, or large and dense formations form in the mammary glands. One of the types of pathology is fibrocystic breast mastopathy, what is it and how to treat the pathology?

Disease fibrocystic mastopathy is a condition in which cysts appear in the mammary glands in the form of small, multiple nodules formed by an expanded connective tissue and fluid. In most cases, it refers to a mixed type of diffuse mastopathy, ICD code 10 - 60.1.

The disease is benign, but at later stages and upon transition to a nodular form, atypical cells can form in the tissues, leading to breast cancer.

Fibrocystic mastopathy

When fibrocystic mastopathy (abbr. FCM) in the mammary glands, there are areas with dense connective tissue. They are filled with fluid and develop into cysts.

  • Pathology is common among women from 30 years old to climacteric age. During and after menopause, the risk of disease is markedly reduced.

Content

Symptoms of fibrocystic mastopathy

The first signs of fibrocystic mastopathy are expressed in the premenstrual period:

  1. Painful sensations in the chest, arising spontaneously or when touched, they increase in the second half of the cycle.
  2. The appearance of seals and granular formations that are detected by palpation.

In the future, the pain becomes stronger, constantly present, accompanied by a feeling of bursting, burdening and radiating - it gives to the shoulder, hypochondrium, axillary region. In the later stages of fibrocystic mastopathy, the symptoms are pronounced and its manifestations are no longer dependent on the period of the menstrual cycle.

Sometimes the secret of a yellowish, grayish or white-green color is distinguished from the nipples or it resembles colostrum. The liquid may have a bloody shade - an alarming signal, as it often indicates the presence of a cancer .

A minor part of women does not feel severe pain in the mammary glands or only encounters it during PMS and menstruation, regarding it as normal. In such cases, regular self-diagnosis, breast palpation is especially important.

Fibrocystic breast mastopathy is caused by an imbalance of hormones, when progesterone levels are low and estrogen and prolactin levels are high. The following reasons may lead to this:

  • Early onset of menses;
  • Late menopause;
  • Short lactation or lack thereof;
  • Artificial abortion - abortions are accompanied by sudden changes in hormonal activity;
  • Exchange disorders - diabetes, obesity;
  • The absence of pregnancies and childbirth, infertility;
  • Liver disease;
  • Endocrine pathologies, especially hypothyroidism;
  • Late first birth;
  • Inflammatory and other diseases of the genitourinary tract;
  • Wrong selection and uncontrolled administration of hormonal drugs, in particular oral contraception.

Bad habits, rigid diets, constant stresses in a woman’s life are considered to be additional provocateurs.

Diffuse fibrocystic mastopathy

Diffuse fibrocystic mastopathy

Fibrocystic mastopathy is often diffuse. In breast tissue, connective (fibrous) tissue forms several or many small nodules filled with fluid.

If some of them increase significantly in size, forming dense large cysts or nodes, they speak about the transition of diffuse fibrocystic mastopathy into a nodular form.

However, the formation of single fibrocystic nodes or a small number of them is not always preceded by a diffuse type - sometimes the nodal FKM develops independently.

Diagnostics and examination methods

Fibrocystic mastopathy is detected during an examination by a doctor. On palpation in the tissues of the mammary glands are found condensed tubercles. They can be multiple or it’s just a few separate formations.

To confirm the diagnosis using the following methods of examination:

  • Ultrasound - reveals the presence, size, content and composition of the walls of cysts, excludes other pathologies.
  • Mammography - accurately determines the form of mastopathy and the presence of a cancer.
  • Puncture or cyst biopsy with further study of the material taken.
  • The analysis of fluid secreted from the nipple is needed for differential diagnosis with other diseases of the breast.
  • Diaphanoscopy - a method of radiography of the mammary glands.

To identify fibrocystic mastopathy in the early stages of development, regular self-examination and a visit to the breast specialist at least once a year are important.

Treatment of fibrocystic mastopathy, drugs

Treatment of fibrocystic mastopathy

The therapy of FCM is aimed at stabilizing the hormonal background and eliminating the provoking factors - the treatment of diseases of the sexual and endocrine systems is carried out, stress situations are excluded, a diet, physiotherapy procedures and medications are prescribed.

Drugs include as medications for the treatment of fibrocystic mastopathy:

  • antiestrogens (Tamoxifen, Fareston, Toremifen);
  • agents that reduce the level of prolactin (bromocriptine);
  • progestins (Pregnin, Orgametril, Norkolut);
  • androgens - used as estrogen antagonists (Danazol);
  • oral contraceptive preparations (Silest, Mersilon);
  • thyroid hormones.

From non-hormonal drugs for treatment are shown:

  • vitamins (A, E, C and group B);
  • potassium iodide, iodomarin;
  • adaptogens to maintain immunity (rhodiola extract, Clamin);
  • sedatives;
  • sparing diuretics for removing puffiness (rosehip tea and herbs);
  • painkillers, NVPS.

Part of the estrogen is excreted in the bile, but constipation and disruption of microflora lead to reabsorption of this hormone, that is, reabsorption into the blood. Therefore, the attending physician may prescribe enzymatic means to normalize the work of the intestine - Wobenzym, Duphalac or others.

Homeopathic remedies containing extracts and plant extracts help to reduce the level of prolactin and the activity of formation of connective tissue elements. This is Remens, Cyclodinon, Mastodinon.

Diet

When treating it is important to follow the rules of nutrition. Diet for fibrocystic mastopathy includes avoiding coffee, tea, cocoa, cola and other carbonated drinks, chocolate.

Animal fats, flour rich products, sweets, spicy and salty foods are subject to strict restrictions.

For good intestinal work in the diet should be a lot of plant fiber, therefore, useful fruits and vegetables, buckwheat, legumes. The menu should include oatmeal and other cereals, whole grain bread, nuts. Every day it is important to drink up to 2 liters of pure water.

Forecast

With proper diagnosis and treatment, the outcome of fibrocystic mastopathy is favorable. But, despite the initial goodness, even small cysts can grow, go into a nodular form and a cancerous tumor.

Therefore, a favorable prognosis occurs only in the case of adequate therapy.

Prevention

A number of preventive measures help reduce the risk of developing fibrocystic mastopathy:

  • detection and treatment of urogenital and endocrine diseases;
  • tracking the stability of the menstrual cycle and its adjustment;
  • examination of the thyroid gland;
  • correct selection of bra size, elimination of compression and injury to the breast;
  • regularity of sex life;
  • rejection of abortion;
  • full lactation;
  • exclusion of bad habits;
  • professional selection of contraceptives.

Identify mastopathy in the early stages allows the mammologist to visit 1-2 times a year and self-examination of the mammary glands for the detection of seals.

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