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Fibroma of the uterus: signs, symptoms and treatment, prognosis

In the intense rhythm of everyday cares, a woman does not immediately react to changes that occur with her body. Not immediately she notes that menstruation became more abundant, longer, and the interval between them decreased.

Pains in the small pelvis, constipation, frequent exacerbations of hemorrhoids remain for a long time without attention, until on a routine examination at the gynecologist the patient will not hear that she has a disease - fibroid of the uterus.


Fibroids of the uterus - what is it?

Fibroma of the uterus is a benign tumor of the uterine wall, consisting of muscle fibers with the inclusion of connective tissue tissues. This rounded, dense, slowly growing formation - the beginning of its growth goes unnoticed - is often detected only when surgical intervention is required.

Dimensions of fibroids of the uterus - from pea to 30 cm.

It never develops after menopause and in adolescent girls, before puberty. The most common fibroma is found in 30-40-year-old women.

Fibroids of the uterus

The tumor does not tend to degenerate into a malignant one, but, nevertheless, it disrupts the natural cycles of the life of a woman. So what is this - fibroid uterus, and is it dangerous?

Varieties of fibroids

Depending on the location of the nodes, three types of fibroid are distinguished:

  1. Most often occurs fibromatous interstitial, it is also intramural. The form, when the nodes are located in the muscular tissue of the uterine wall.
  2. Superserous nodes are located under the outer shell of the uterus, irritating the peritoneum and exerting pressure on neighboring internal organs.
  3. Less common is the submucous fibromatous form, in which the nodes are turned into the uterine cavity, preventing the bearing of the fetus and causing dangerous profuse bleeding associated with detachment of the uterine mucosa.

Causes of uterine fibroid disease

The main reason for the development of this tumor in the heyday of reproductive age is an excess of estrogen - the hormone of the ovaries. During pregnancy, when the level of estrogen rises, they are provoked by a faster growth of fibroids. In order to protect against pregnancy and in the treatment of menopause, pills with estrogen are used, which can also cause the formation of fibromatous nodes.

Tumor growth can also be caused by:

  • complex traumatic births;
  • cesarean sections;
  • frequent abortions;
  • frequent diagnostic curettage;
  • ingrowth of intrauterine contraceptives;
  • chronic gynecological problems.

Factors contributing to the development of fibroids are:

  • later onset of the menstrual cycle;
  • absence or irregular sexual life;
  • late (after 25 years) first birth.

Such pathological conditions as obesity, diabetes, hypodynamia, stressful situations are considered a possible background for the development of fibroids.

In 40% of cases, a genetic predisposition was noted.

Signs and symptoms of uterine fibroid

symptoms of uterine fibroid

Symptoms of uterine fibroid in women are manifested as:

  • painful prolonged menstruation and bleeding between them;
  • feeling of heaviness in the abdomen;
  • pain in the lower back, groin and pelvic region;
  • discomfort during sexual intercourse;
  • abdominal enlargement;
  • increased urge to urinate;
  • constipation and hemorrhoids.

Fibroids of the uterus have symptoms and signs that are characteristic of many pathological processes in the small pelvis, this makes it difficult to diagnose.

With infertility and miscarriages, doctors must conduct a survey of the uterine wall, suspecting the development of fibroids.

Diagnosis of uterine fibroid

After palpation of the uterus and appendages, the following diagnostic methods can be used:

  • Ultrasound of the small pelvis;
  • Biopsy - studying under a microscope a piece of uterine tissue;
  • Hysteroscopy - visual examination of the inner shell of the uterus by an optical device;
  • Laparoscopy - examination of the outer wall of the uterus using optics through a small incision of the abdominal wall;
  • Contrast radiography differentiates the tumor with uterine sarcoma and ovarian cystoma;
  • Magnetic resonance therapy is a painless and safe determination of nodes by creating a magnetic field and radio waves.

Treatment of uterine fibroids

Treatment of uterine fibroids

When uterine fibroid is diagnosed, surgery is not the only way to get rid of the tumor.

If a small formation is found, the woman is put on dispensary supervision, visiting the doctor once a quarter. She may be prescribed conservative treatment of fibroids, in which the main role is given to hormonal drugs in order to reduce the level of estrogen.

Supplement it with anti-inflammatory and restorative therapy. With severe anemia, due to regular blood loss, in addition to vitamin complexes, iron preparations are prescribed.

If the fibroid reaches a size of 10 cm, multiple fast-growing nodes or a submucosal node are found, if endometriosis or necrosis of the node has developed - the doctor considers several options for surgical treatment:

  • Embolization (blockage) of arteries feeding fibroids;
  • FUS - destruction, removal of uterine fibroids by ultrasound;
  • Myomectomy - fibroids are removed from the wall, the uterus is retained;
  • Hysterectomy - complete or partial amputation of the uterus.

After removal of the uterine fibroid the woman continues to be under the supervision of specialists.

In the treatment of fibroids of the uterus, folk medicine can be used as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, in the form of infusions for ingestion, and for syringing - but, to consider them as a substitute for drug treatment is not necessary.

Fibroids of uterus during pregnancy

A benign tumor of small size will not be an obstacle to the onset of pregnancy and childbearing. But sometimes the location of the fibroid is of great importance.

For example, if a fibromioma is formed at the mouth of the fallopian tubes leading to the ovaries, then a mechanical obstruction to the movement of the egg and related infertility may appear.

If the fibroid is next to the cervix, it can cause miscarriage or make it difficult for the baby to progress during labor and cause severe bleeding.

Large interstitial or submucous nodes can squeeze the embryo, hampering its development, or prevent it from taking the right position, making it difficult to deliver.

Therefore, the presence of fibroma in a pregnant woman requires particularly careful observation of the course of pregnancy.

Complications and prognosis

What is dangerous for the uterine fibroid? - As a result of regular blood loss the woman develops anemia with all signs (fatigue, decreased performance, shortness of breath, pallor, a tendency to fainting).

When squeezing a tumor feeding her arterial vessel, there may be necrosis with symptoms of an "acute abdomen," requiring emergency surgery.

After a conservative treatment, relapses may occur, but the fibroid does not pass into a malignant tumor.

Prevention of uterine fibroids

It is necessary to prevent inflammatory diseases of the genital area, this requires:

  • Follow the hormonal background of your body,
  • Use contraception to exclude abortions,
  • at sexual contacts to avoid infection as banal microflora, and specific, causing venereal diseases,
  • regularly monitored by a gynecologist.

These simple measures will reduce the risk of developing fibroids.


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