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Decryption of analyzes

Fibrinogen is higher than normal - what does elevated fibrinogen in the blood mean?

Fibrinogen is a protein component of a blood clot during its coagulation. High levels of this protein is detected in inflammatory and many other diseases.

Congenital abnormalities, liver problems and bleeding tendencies are accompanied by a low amount of fibrinogen in the blood. For all the reasons for the change in blood clotting factor and the need for analysis, read on.

Content

Fibrinogen - what is it?

Fibrinogen above normal

Fibrinogen is a clear, soluble protein that is the basis for the formation of blood clots. It is produced in the liver, its renewal in the blood occurs at intervals of 3-5 days. Fibrinogen is an inactive form until it becomes necessary to form a blood clot.

When the blood coagulation system is activated (for injuries, bleeding, cuts, bruises, inflammations), thrombin acts on fibrinogen molecules. As a result, insoluble protein threads of a thrombus, or fibrin clot are formed.

Tasks of fibrinogen in the body:

  • direct participation in the creation of a blood clot by transferring to fibrin;
  • effect on vascular walls during inflammation;
  • regulation of thrombus dissolution (fibrinolysis);
  • participation in the creation of new capillaries and vessels;
  • acceleration of healing of injuries of the skin, mucous membranes and internal organs.

Fibrinogen is also called I coagulation factor since it was detected the very first. The analysis for fibrinogen is included in a more extensive blood test - a coagulogram. Indications for:

  • preparation for surgery and the period after surgery;
  • pathologies of the heart and blood vessels;
  • liver disease;
  • inflammation of unknown etiology;
  • pregnancy;
  • suspected hemophilia.

The following factors may affect the results of the analysis :

  1. Reduce: taking anabolic steroids, phenobarbital, urokinase, androgens, valproic acid, streptokinase, and blood transfusions.
  2. Increase: stress, intense physical activity, obesity, high blood levels of cholesterol and sugar, use of estrogen and oral contraceptives.

You should not take a coagulogram with a cold, acute respiratory infections, sore throat and flu symptoms - in this case, the results can also be distorted.

Fibrinogen is higher than normal - what does this mean?

If fibrinogen is elevated, this means that there is a risk of a blood clot and, as a result, the development of stroke, coronary heart disease and heart attack.

The reasons for fibrinogen above the norm can be inflammatory and autoimmune processes in the body, hormonal abnormalities, and some diseases:

  • inflammatory diseases of different etiology and localization, both autoimmune and infectious, - pancreatitis, pharyngitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, rheumatoid arthritis, mononucleosis and others;
  • impaired cerebral circulation;
  • cancers, in particular multiple myeloma;
  • pathology of blood vessels in the periphery - thrombophlebitis , angiopathy in diabetes, venous insufficiency , atherosclerosis of the extremities;
  • acute myocardial infarction;
  • injuries and burns;
  • nephrotic syndrome;
  • addicted to nicotine;
  • diabetes mellitus ;
  • pregnancy;
  • recent surgery;
  • hepatitis, tuberculosis ;
  • Stage I DIC.

The fibrinogen index also increases with a person’s age.

Fibrinogen downgraded - what does it mean?

If the fibrinogen is lowered, it means that there is also some kind of violation in the body. Here are the conditions in which the fibrinogen level falls below normal:

  • liver cirrhosis and liver failure;
  • food or chemical poisoning;
  • postpartum complications;
  • infectious mononucleosis;
  • early and late toxicosis of pregnant women;
  • DIC syndrome (accumulation in the vessels of many microthrombus);
  • heart failure;
  • the presence of tumor metastases;
  • promyelocytic leukemia;
  • deficiency of vitamins B12 and C;
  • congenital lack of fibrinogen (hypofibrinogenemia);
  • pathological proliferation of blood cells (polycythemia).

The level of fibrinogen is low in children under six months and vegetarians. It may also decrease due to the intake of androgens, anticoagulants, antioxidants, fish oil and anabolic steroids.

Due to the decrease in the level of this protein, blood coagulation worsens - if the fibrinogen index does not exceed 1 g / l, then the risk of internal bleeding is high. If the value is less than 2 g / l, surgical interventions are contraindicated - alternative to them is substitution therapy.

Fibrinogen norm in women and men (table)

The study uses venous blood given on an empty stomach. Two hours before the analysis you can not smoke and expose yourself to physical exertion.

The rate of fibrinogen in men and women is the same and is in the range of 2-4 g / l. (see table)

Adults Newborns During pregnancy
2 to 4 g / l 1.3-3 g / l Not more than 6 g / l
  • Level below 2 is fraught with prolonged bleeding, and with wounds and surgeries, the outcome can be fatal.
  • Above 4, there is a risk of thrombosis and related complications.

The normal level of fibrinogen in women who are expecting a child is 6 g / l in the third trimester, and in newborn children it is 1.25-3 g / l. In a coagulogram, the concentration of this protein may be referred to as FIB.CLAUSS, FIB or RECOMBIPL-FIB.

Fibrinogen during pregnancy - the norm, increase and decrease

By means of a coagulogram, it is possible to reveal any abnormalities in the blood clotting system during pregnancy. To do the analysis for this should be every 3 months. The content of fibrinogen during pregnancy slightly increases, and this is normal - this is how preparation for childbirth and possible bleeding occurs. An increase in the protein level is observed already in the middle of the first trimester.

The rate of fibrinogen for pregnant women in trimesters is as follows:

  1. I trimester - up to 2.95-3 g / l;
  2. II trimester - 3.1 g / l;
  3. III trimester - 4.95-6 g / l.

The risk of postpartum hemorrhage is extremely high if by the end of pregnancy the fibrinogen drops below 2 g / l.

If fibrinogen is elevated during pregnancy, it threatens with the development of a number of complications:

  • early placental abruption;
  • preeclampsia;
  • spontaneous abortion in the first trimester;
  • umbilical cord thrombosis;
  • missed abortion;
  • preterm delivery;
  • thrombophlebitis and thrombosis in women.

Fibrinogen raised / lowered - what to do?

Fibrinogen elevated what to do If fibrinogen deviates from the norm, it is important for successful treatment to identify the cause of its decrease or increase. Based on the results of the coagulogram and, if necessary, other diagnostic studies, the doctor prescribes a treatment regimen.

If the fibrinogen is higher than normal , then drugs from the group of anticoagulants are shown - they prevent the formation of fibrin and are:

  • straight lines - block the action of thrombin (Heparin);
  • indirect - slow production in the liver of prothrombin (Warfarin, Dikumarin).

You can also use these drugs:

  • thrombolytics - they are administered locally in the area of ​​the already formed blood clot (Alteplaza and its analogues);
  • inhibitors of coagulation factor 10 (Xarelto, Rivaroxaban).

If the fibrinogen is below normal , then from the agents acting on the blood coagulation system, aminocaproic and tranexamic acids are administered intravenously, Aprotinin. When pregnancy is often prescribed Tranexam in pill form.

Nutrition for problems with fibrinogen levels should also be given attention. The table below lists the products that help reduce or increase its quantity.

Reduce сок алоэ. Cranberries, turmeric, pineapples, licorice root (decoction or tincture), linseed oil, green tea, beetroot, cucumbers, raspberries, garlic, lemons, cocoa and bitter chocolate, fatty fish, vitamins C, E, A, B3, B5 aloe juice
Boost отвар тысячелистника и крапивы. Bananas, walnuts and pine nuts, different types of cabbage, beans, potatoes, buckwheat, spinach, corn, white meat, cottage cheese, milk, eggs, vitamin K, decoction of yarrow and nettle.
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