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Eustachiitis: symptoms and treatment, forms of the disease

To perceive sound vibrations, air must approach the eardrum from the outer and inner sides. In this way, there is a balancing of the pressure, without which a normal transformation of sound into nerve impulses is impossible.

The external auditory canal is rarely inflamed, and the internal (or Eustachian tube) is at risk for the disease even due to a common cold. And in this case, the otolaryngologists talk about the development of the eustachyte.

Content

Eustachite - What is it?

Eustachyte Eustachiitis is an inflammatory process in the mucous membrane of the Eustachian tube and the cavity of the tympanic membrane. Among doctors, the disease is also known under the names of tubo-otitis and salpingitis.

Internal auditory meatus has a small diameter (up to 2 mm), so the slightest violation of its patency affects the functioning of the hearing organs.

Often, the pathological process affects the very cavity of the tympanic membrane, in which the auditory ossicles are located: a hammer, an anvil and stapes - and this, in turn, provokes an otitis media of the middle ear.

Causes

Physicians identify 2 main causes of inflammation of the Eustachian tube:

  1. Infection.
  2. Allergy.

In the first case eustachiitis develops as a result of the vital activity of pathogenic microorganisms. They fall into the auditory canal from the upper respiratory tract (nose, nasopharynx) in angina, influenza, rhinitis, etc. However, this does not always happen.

The provoking factor, as a rule, is delaying the treatment of the underlying disease. In addition, the probability of infection of the Eustachian tube is also great, and with improper barking.

Emptying the nasal cavity is allowed only when one nostril is closed with a finger, and if you block at once 2 nostrils, the snot (along with the microbes) will rush into the internal auditory canal, which will cause the ailment.

Often, eustachyitis occurs because of allergies: the effect of various stimuli increases the synthesis of histamines, which contribute to the development of edema. And if the patency changes the balance of pressure and, as a consequence, the tympanic membrane is drawn inward. With this course of events, first of all it is necessary to eliminate the allergic reaction.

Symptoms of eustachyte by forms of manifestation

Symptoms of Eustachyitis

With a sharp narrowing and inflammation of the auditory tube develops an acute eustachiosis with characteristic symptoms:

  1. Feeling of stuffiness and noise in the ears.
  2. Enhanced perception of one's own voice.
  3. Sensation of fluid transfusion in the ear.
  4. Pain syndrome (usually - at atmospheric pressure drops).
  5. Hearing loss.
  6. Increased temperature.

Restriction of the mobility of the tympanic membrane affects the hearing loss by 20-30 dB in the low frequency range.

With the infectious nature of the disease, it is possible that the temperature increases and the accumulation in the Eustachian tube of a transudate - a specific secretion, which first includes only proteins and fluid, and in the later stages - leukocytes and lymphocytes. In addition, the vital activity of pathogenic microbes leads to suppuration, which is fraught with an additional complication in the form of otitis.

If there is insufficient or untimely treatment, it is likely that the development of a chronic eustachiitis, in which the situation is significantly aggravated and the symptomatology is supplemented by pathological changes:

  1. The eardrum atrophies, becomes turbid, and in some places there is a perforation.
  2. Persistent narrowing of the auditory tube.
  3. Pronounced hearing loss.

Diagnostics

Eustachyte Modern medicine without special difficulties copes with eustachyte, the symptoms and treatment of which are closely interrelated. The first task of an otolaryngologist is to establish the cause and nature of the disease.

This can be done using the following diagnostic methods:

Отоскопия. 1. Otoscopy. Special tools are examined by the tympanic membrane.

Аудиометрия. 2. Audiometry. Identify changes in the perception of sound waves of a significant range.

Оценивают состояние евстахиевой трубы. 3. Evaluate the state of the Eustachian tube.

Проводят субъективное исследование: 4. Carry out a subjective study:

  • Valsalva test (patient is asked to close his mouth and nose when exhaling);
  • A sample Toynbee (the patient is asked to take a strong swallow with his nostrils clamped).

Берут мазки для выявления причины болезни (аллергия или инфекция). 5. Take smears to identify the cause of the disease (allergy or infection).

The patient's feelings in subjective research are important as a primary diagnosis. Of course, not every person will accurately describe what is happening, but the doctor will have enough and fluent characteristics.

In particular, if there is a crack on the exhalation in the ears - this corresponds to the norm, and if the gurgling or squeaking - there are abnormalities in the auditory organs.

Treatment of eustachyitis

Treatment of eustachyitis

When the eustachyte is confirmed by instrumental methods, the treatment is prescribed immediately and, as a rule, complex, since the cause of the disease is often hidden in the inflammation of the upper respiratory tract.

To eliminate infection from the auditory tube, vasoconstrictive (Sanorin, Nazivin) and general antibacterial drugs are directly administered inside the passageway.

If the disease is caused by a reaction to stimuli, the patient will need antihistamines (Claritin, Suprastin). By the way, the allergenic type of ailment is treated longer than infectious.

The disease can affect both one ear and two, which is fraught with complications in the form of bilateral hearing loss. Drops with eustachyte are mandatory, but additionally, oral intake of tablets is also recommended.

In general, the therapeutic course is specified by the otolaryngologist after a complete examination of the patient.

At eustachyte treatment at home is ineffective. And if the patient refuses hospitalization or regular hospital visits, the illness may well become chronic. The matter is that in a clinical setting, doctors prescribe additional measures to combat the disease:

  • Physiotherapy (UHF, microwaves);
  • Glucocorticoid hormones and proteolytic enzymes are introduced through the catheter to dilute the transudate;
  • if there is no exacerbation, then blowing and pneumomassage is allowed to remove the transudate;
  • if necessary, perform electrostimulation of the muscles of the Eustachian tube.

Conclusion

One-sided or bilateral eustachiitis may occur due to a common cold. In the arsenal of ENT doctors there are effective means, but measures should not be postponed as a disease, as the disease can lead to atrophy of the tympanic membrane and a decrease in hearing.

Eustachite code in the ICD 10

In the International Classification of Diseases of the 10th revision (ICD 10), eustachiosis is indicated as an inflammation of the Eustachian tube and is under the code:

H65-H75 - Diseases of the middle ear and mastoid process

H68 - Inflammation and occlusion of the eustachian tube

  • H68.0 - Inflammation of the Eustachian tube
  • H68.1 - Eustachian tube occlusion
  • H69 - Other Eustachian tube diseases

H69 - Other Eustachian tube diseases

  • H69.0 - Yawning Eustachian Pipe
  • H69.8 - Other specified diseases of the Eustachian tube
  • H69.9 - Disease of Eustachian tube, unspecified

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