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Cervical erosion: treatment, symptoms and signs, causes

Cervical erosion is one of the most relevant pathologies of the female reproductive system, is diagnosed in about half of women of child-bearing age and is not found after 40 years.

Many doctors consider this phenomenon as a normal physiologically variable state, despite the widespread opinion of its destructiveness.

Content

Cervical erosion - what is it?

Cervical erosion is a histophysiological feature of the cervix, in which a section covered by a cylindrical epithelium is found on the vaginal part, normally lining the cervical canal. This unusual, atypical location of the epithelium has different names - ectopia, ectropion, pseudo-erosion.

Cervical erosion

A more accurate term is ectopia, but erosion sounds more familiar to patients, so some medical practitioners still use this name in their practice.

Types of erosion

The term collectively described, it is used to name a whole group of pathological processes. There are several types of erosion, differing in their features:

  • Pseudo-erosion is a shift of a single-layered cylindrical epithelium of the cervical canal to the vaginal part, usually occurs in young women: congenital (it happens in girls and goes up to 25 years) and acquired (formed during hormonal changes in women);
  • True erosion is a bleeding defect, which is infrequently determined and discharges after about 2 weeks;
  • Ectropion is a complicated acquired clinical version of cervical ectopia , combining ectopia and cicatricial deformity with eversion of the mucous membrane of the cervical canal into the vaginal cavity.

Depending on the reasons for the defect that provoked the defect, true erosion is inflammatory, traumatic, chemical, burn, trophic, specific or cancerous.

When erosion of the cervix occurs, an examination should be performed to determine the provoking factors for the development of this condition.

Causes of cervical erosion

Cylindrical epithelial cells can be where they should not be under the influence of many factors. The most common causes of erosion include infections transmitted during intercourse, mechanical damage and reduced immunity.

Pseudo-erosion results from:

The erosion of the cervix after childbirth, which was found during the childbearing period, usually passes within 4 months. If ectopia is observed in thirty-year-old women, and she has no connection with pregnancy, this indicates a hormonal imbalance.

True erosion is influenced by:

  • traumatic injuries;
  • pathogenic microorganisms that provoke inflammatory processes;
  • gynecological intrauterine interventions.

Trauma to the mucous membrane may occur after rough sexual intercourse, improper use of barrier contraceptives (caps, membranes), when syringing with aggressive substances (solutions of acids or alkalis). Abortion, difficult labor, diagnostic curettage, hysteroscopy contribute to the formation of true erosion.

The same applies to sexually transmitted infections. Microorganisms that cause trichomoniasis, ureaplasmosis or chlamydia destroy the cellular structure of membranes and produce toxic substances.

Ectopion is manifested due to:

  • cervical tissue damage that was not eliminated during labor;
  • hormonal disorders;
  • abortion in late pregnancy;
  • delivery manipulations (application of abdominal forceps, fetal extraction).

Erosion of the cervix in unborn young women is the result of functional hormonal disorders and is considered congenital.

Signs and symptoms of cervical erosion

symptoms of cervical erosion

With this pathology, in most cases there are no symptoms, the woman is not disturbed by anything. If an infection joins, then pain in the suprapubic area, vaginal discharge may appear.

Symptomatology is extremely scanty, so most often the pathology is found on a routine examination by a doctor.

In true erosion of the cervix, discharge from the genital tract is bloody, contact, that is, arising after an intimate relationship. This is due to cell rejection and damage to blood vessels.

Ectroipon manifests itself only if it is complicated by additional infections, often registered after the diagnosis of cervicitis , endometritis .

In this case, you may experience pain in the lower back and lower abdomen, increased clear discharge and the appearance of bloody contact. Failures of the menstrual cycle are not excluded.

Diagnostics

To recognize the erosion of a fairly routine examination by a gynecologist using mirrors. To clarify the nature of the disease using advanced colposcopy using a special device.

Evaluated tissue color, the boundaries of the revealed formations, epithelial disturbance, vascular pattern. In the process can be used special solutions. For example, after applying a 5% alcoholic solution of iodine on the affected area, the pseudo-erosion becomes light pink.

If a malignant character is suspected during a colposcopy, a cervical biopsy is performed. The doctor takes a fragment of tissue from the pathological area for examination and sends it to the laboratory.

In addition, you should go through a series of minor surveys:

  • definition of vaginal microflora;
  • study of the hormonal status of the patient;
  • cytological examination;
  • Ultrasound of the genitals;
  • PCR diagnostic method .

Treatment of cervical erosion - radio wave, laser, etc.

Treatment of cervical erosion

The therapeutic technique is established after a comprehensive examination. Doctors approach the choice of the treatment line for cervical erosion individually; this depends on the state of the female reproductive system and the diagnostically detected changes.

In some cases, operational methods may be recommended:

  1. Electrosurgical;
  2. Cryodestruction;
  3. Laser and radiosurgical methods;
  4. Chemical coagulation.

Electrosurgery

Erosive surface burned by electric current. This method of treatment is outdated, it has many drawbacks. At the site of cervical erosion after cauterization, a black scab appears, rejected for several days, then the normal epithelium is gradually restored.

Recovery occurs within 2 months. But this method is not applicable to women who have not born, as after the intervention there is a high probability of scar formation, which leads to problems with the opening of the cervix during childbirth.

Frequent complications include bleeding from a scab, menstrual failure.

Cryodestruction

The method is characterized by bloodlessness, painlessness and the possibility of using without anesthesia. The method consists in the treatment of erosion with liquid nitrogen, the temperature of which can reach 150 ° C with a minus sign.

Nitrogen is applied to the affected area with a dotted, special device, which makes it possible to save healthy tissue. Under the influence of low-temperature cooling, complex biochemical and biophysical reactions occur, causing structural changes.

Cryodestruction is used for surgical treatment of erosion in young women, since after it scarring is almost not formed.

Of the minuses: the probability of insufficient cooling of the tissues - both in depth and on the surface.

Laser destruction

In the treatment of cervical erosion laser operation is performed in a contactless manner. The laser beam acts on the defective area of ​​the mucous membrane, evaporating moisture from erosion cells and thus destroying them. The procedure is painless and highly effective, does not leave scars, does not lead to a violation of childbearing and menstrual function.

This is the most modern and preferred method in which complications are extremely rare. Laser wounds heal much faster than electrosurgery.

Monthly after cauterization of cervical erosion come in time. There are contraindications for the use of therapy: malignant diseases of the genital organs and acute inflammation.

Among the minuses should be noted the relatively high cost of the procedure.

Radio wave treatment

Radiowave treatment of cervical erosion is based on the biological properties of the microwave electromagnetic field. An electric current, passing through a special apparatus, turns into radio waves, which by means of an electrode are sent to a defective area.

In modern medicine, this method is one of the most popular. Its advantages include a painless postoperative period, the absence of bleeding after the procedure, the effect only on pathological tissues.

After treatment, physical activity is eliminated during the month.

Chemical coagulation

It is used if erosion has small dimensions (not more than 1 cm in diameter). The area with the defect is treated with a chemical preparation with antimicrobial properties conducive to the death of unhealthy cells.

5-10 procedures are necessary for complete recovery.

Medicamentous

. The disease is usually poorly amenable to drug treatment, but for small areas of the pathological process, the use of suppositories for cervical erosion is not excluded, as recommended by the doctor .

Suppositories can be prescribed as adjuvants after cauterization. They contribute to the rapid healing of wounds, the restoration of the integrity of the mucous.

Cervical erosion and pregnancy

Cervical erosion and pregnancy Quite often, a woman finds out for the first time her diagnosis during pregnancy. Usually erosion does not affect the carrying of the child, and pregnancy does not worsen the state of ectopia.

But during this period, the pathology is more pronounced as a result of better blood supply to the cervix and the zone of the cylindrical epithelium. Cauterization is carried out after childbirth, when the woman is fully restored.

It is recommended every six months to come for a visit to a gynecologist to take a smear for cytology. Since in the case of progression of the disease may increase in erosion in size, the appearance of bleeding, degeneration into a malignant process.

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