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Red blood cells in the urine, what does this mean? - Norm, causes of elevated red blood cells

If red blood cells are found in the urine, this can be a concern for health: most people do not understand what this means. However, before you panic, you should know what the normal content of red blood cells in the urine, and under what diseases they appear.

Introduction: Should there be red blood cells in the urine?

Erythrocytes are hemoglobin-containing blood cells, the main work of which is the transfer of oxygen to the tissues. Enough large blood cells are normally not able to penetrate the renal membranes. However, some of them still fall into the urine, even in a healthy person. . Therefore, their content within certain limits is considered the norm .

The elevated red blood cell count is called hematuria (blood in the urine). Such a pathological condition is caused by the weakness of the renal capillaries, which pass red blood cells into the urine, and the impaired filtration ability of the kidneys.

The second variant of the development of hematuria is microtrauma of the mucous membrane of the ureters, urethral canal or bladder.

Content

Causes of elevated red blood cell levels in the urine

Red blood cells in the urine

type of red blood cells in the study of urine, photo

In order to understand what red blood cells mean in the urine, it is necessary to clarify why red blood cells appear in it. Causes can be divided into several main groups:

  • Physiological - overheating of the body (bath, prolonged exposure to the sun), stress, exercise, alcohol, spicy / salty food;
  • Diseases of the kidneys and bladder - acute / chronic glomerulonephritis, less often pyelonephritis, cystitis, renal and urolithiasis, hydronephrosis, oncology and trauma;
  • Male genital diseases - prostatitis, prostate adenoma;
  • Gynecological diseases - uterine bleeding, erosive lesion of the cervix;
  • Medicinal - taking sulfonamides, urotropin, anticoagulants and ascorbic acid (in large quantities, vitamin C irritates the kidneys);
  • Pathology of other organs and systems - hypertension, heart failure, hemophilia, viral / bacterial intoxication, thrombocytopenia, and diseases accompanied by fever.

Erythrocyte norm in urine in women and men

Erythrocyte norm in urine in women and men

In a traditional microscopic examination of urine in a healthy person, red blood cells may be absent. Their maximum content in women is not more than 3 units. in p / s (field of view), for men - 1-2 units. in p / s. Excess of norm can be regarded as:

  • Microhematuria - not detectable visually (the color of urine is kept light yellow), in the general analysis 4-5-6 erythrocytes are recorded in p / z;
  • Gross hematuria - is detected visually by changing the color of urine to red or brownish, red blood cells can fill the entire field of view and can not be counted.

Red blood cells in the urine according to Nechyporenko deserve special attention. This type of urine study is more informative: the count of red blood cells is made in 1 ml of urine, both unchanged and modified (wrinkled) red blood cells are detected. Normally, a urine sample according to Nechiporenko contains red blood cells up to 1000 U / ml.

Increased red blood cells in the urine of women

In addition to gynecological diseases that cause bleeding in women, the cause of increased red blood cells in the urine can be a collection of analysis during menstruation and poor hygiene.

Therefore, women should not pass urine during menstruation. If the urine analysis is necessary to pass urgently and at the same time red blood cells were detected, it is recommended to repeat the study at the end of menstruation.

The elevated erythrocytes, which appeared in the urine during pregnancy, are alarming. The normal red blood cell index in the urine test of the expectant mother does not differ from the usual female norm.

However, hematuria in pregnant women, especially in previously undergoing kidney disease, is fraught with exacerbation and adversely affects the fetus.

Lightheadedness in this matter can lead to the rapid development of renal failure, due to increasing pressure on the urinary system of a woman, and premature delivery.

Red blood cells in the urine are elevated, what does this mean?

Red blood cells in the urine are elevated, which means

Hematuria, found in the general urinalysis, requires additional research. A three-glass analysis can help with this: the first urine stream is collected in the first tank, the second one is collected in the second one, the third part is the residual part. If red blood cells appear:

  • in the first portion - this indicates the pathology of the urethra;
  • in the third portion - bladder disease;
  • in all portions - kidney disease or damage to the ureters.

It may also indicate the cause of hematuria (more than 1000 units / ml) and the analysis according to Nechyporenko:

  • Fresh (unchanged) red blood cells - often combined with increased white blood cells, indicate stones, cancer and polyps in the kidney / bladder, prostate adenoma, kidney infarction (necrosis of the kidney tissue);
  • Leached (modified) red blood cells - often appear with protein in the urine , are a sign of nephrotic syndrome, acute / chronic glomerulonephritis, renal hypertension, toxic nephropathy.

If red blood cells and white blood cells are elevated in the urine, protein appears, this may indicate an inflammatory process or injury to the mucous membrane of the ureters or urethra by stones or crystalline formations (sand).

What to do if red blood cells are elevated in the urine?

Even a slight increase in the number of red blood cells in the general analysis of urine (4-5 units) should not be overlooked. Although this figure may be due to poor hygiene before collecting urine from women, a reanalysis is necessary.

Hematuria, confirmed by repeated general examination or nechiporenko breakdown, requires an ultrasound examination of the bladder and kidneys (ureters are not available for ultrasound), contrast x-rays of the urinary system and other studies.

A full examination is necessary for accurate diagnosis and the appointment of an effective treatment regimen.

Hematuria is not treated on its own! Most often found protein and red blood cells in the urine, often leukocytes. Only a qualified doctor on the basis of additional diagnostic methods can prescribe the correct treatment and prevent the development of severe complications and chronic renal pathology.

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