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Enterobiosis, what is it? Symptoms and treatment in children and adults

Enterobiosis - small white worms laying eggs in the anal folds. Most often, the disease occurs in children, but mothers do not always pay attention to the signs of helminthic invasion, even without suspecting what can be threatened by enterobiasis.

The territory of the spread of worms goes far beyond the anal area and rectum.

Content

Enterobiosis, what is it?

Enterobiosis

Enterobiosis is the colonization of the intestine by helminths of the pinworm genus. The population of worms can range from a few to tens and hundreds. Enterobiosis is called a disease of dirty hands. Such an accurate characteristic confirms the process of development of pinworm invasion .

Pinworms are small intestinal parasites: females reach 10-13 mm, and males - 5-6 mm. Helminths parasitize in the lower part of the small intestine and appendix. Migration of females into the rectum begins after fertilization: one female specimen carries up to 17 thousand larvae in one single time.

Having reached the rectum, the pinworm overcomes the anal sphincter of the anal opening. Since it is most relaxed at night, the output of pregnant females often occurs at night, provoking severe itching and restless sleep. Moving along the anal folds of the skin, the female leaves behind a cluster of larvae (up to 300 pieces in one masonry) and perishes. The dead adult looks like a small, shrunken lump.

The next stage in the development of enterobiasis is the ingress of eggs into the human hands and self-infection.

This happens either when combing the anus, or through clothing. Either way, the pinworm eggs are on the fingers, under the fingernails of the infected person. Maturation of the larvae takes up to 6 hours.

From the anal region, directly from the hands or indirectly through everyday objects, the larvae of the pinworms enter the mouth and further into the gastrointestinal tract. The process of parasitic invasion is repeated again, with each time the number of pinworm population increases.

Infection

Infection with enterobiasis in children

enterobiasis, photo

Enterobiosis causes pinworms - intestinal parasites from the family of nematodes. Outside of the egg, the pinworm eggs are quite stable: they feel great at high humidity and air temperature of 35-37ºС, they do not die at temperature fluctuations of 23-40ºС.

At an average temperature of 18-20 ° C, the larvae are viable for 3 weeks. Critical conditions for them are direct sun exposure, drying, temperature -15 ° C (die in 40-50 min) and + 55 ° C (live only a few seconds).

Infection with pinworms can occur due to:

  • dirty hands (non-compliance with basic hygiene);
  • habits of gnawing nails;
  • curiosity of young children and the desire to try everything on the teeth (thus learning the world around the world, kids are exposed to the danger of not only helminth infection, but also intestinal infections);
  • tactile contact with an infected person (handshake);
  • contact with the object on which the infected left eggs worm (door handles, other people's clothes);
  • inhalation of dust with the parasite larvae settled on carpets, clothing;
  • presence in the house of cats and dogs (these animals are natural reservoirs of various helminthiases, enterobiasis including);
  • professional activities related to animals (fur farms, etc.);
  • when flies and cockroaches are present in the house (carriers of larvae).

Symptoms of enterobiasis

Symptoms of enterobiasis

Symptoms of enterobiasis in children, photo

The clinical picture of enterobiasis is characterized by a wavy course. From infection to maturation of adults and fertilization takes 3-6 weeks. Further during 1-3 days the infected person has a strong itch, more often at night. The patient notes the increase in stool up to 4 times a day.

Symptoms of enterobiasis in children are more pronounced: the child becomes irritable and whiny during egg laying, there is restless sleep and scratching of priests. Suffering and intellectual abilities of kids: memory worsens, academic performance declines, there are complaints of a headache.

After the first helminthic attack, the itching is eliminated, but after 2-3 weeks all the symptoms are repeated again. This indicates a developing process of self-infection. If the treatment is not available, and the pinworm population grows, the period of severe itching in the anal area is erased: unpleasant sensations become permanent and more painful. With large-scale invasions at night, gnashing of teeth is heard.

The symptomatic picture of enterobiasis can be more extensive - this is due to the negative effects of cohabitation with pinworms. Parasites cause:

  • Cracks and combs with possible bacterial infection - reddening and swelling of the perianal area, purulent elements;
  • Damage to the intestinal mucosa - periodic abdominal pain, flatulence and rumbling, nausea (less often vomiting), loose stools, false defecation;
  • Allergic rash (up to eczema);
  • Anemia due to eating pinworms of vitamins and nutrients;
  • Increased risk of acute intestinal infection;
  • Endometritis and worm infestation of the vagina (vulvitis, vaginitis) due to creeping of parasites along the perineum;
  • Disturbance of motor and secretory function of gastrointestinal tract - gastritis, duodenitis;
  • Dysbacteriosis - diagnosed 4.5 times more often with helminthic invasion ;
  • Mechanical damage to the intestinal mucosa - females can be introduced into the thickness of the small intestine mucosa by 2/3 of its length, provoking an admixture of blood in the feces ;
  • High probability of developing acute appendicitis;
  • Frequent catarrhal diseases as a result of decreased immunity;
  • Non-formation of immunity after DTP vaccination in vaccinated with pinworm infestation.

Enterobiosis in adult women during pregnancy provokes the onset / burden of toxicosis. And increasing the sensitization of the body sometimes entails a threat to the health of the future baby. In teenagers, itchy symptoms can provoke masturbation.

Diagnostics

Indisputable confirmation of infection with pinworms is the macroscopic detection of their larvae. The usual analysis of feces is not very informative: in the stools of eggs, pinworms can not be found. To diagnose enterobiosis, scraping is used from perianal folds.

A necessary condition for the reliability of the study is that the analysis is taken in the morning before washing and emptying the intestine.

Previously used to take the scraping cotton wands, moistened with glycerin, now replaced with a special adhesive tape. Sometimes scraping is prescribed 3 times every day or every other day. Children scraped to enterobiosis with a preventive purpose 1-2 times a year (spring-autumn).

Treatment of enterobiasis

Treatment of enterobiasis

Successful disposal of pinworms can be achieved without taking antihelminthic drugs. For this, the following rules must be strictly observed:

  1. Observance of cleanliness of hands - frequent washing with soap, not to gnaw nails and not to put hands to a mouth.
  2. Daily change of panties and bed linen, obligatory ironing by hot iron.
  3. Daily shower, two-time washing of the perineum with soap - morning and evening.
  4. Elimination of itching with the help of soda enema - 1/2. ch. baking soda for a glass of warm water (boiled!).

Pawn at night in the back passage of a tampon with petroleum jelly. Such a measure reduces invasiveness up to 6 times! One-time administration of medicines, for example, leads to a decrease in the pinworm population only up to 2 times.

Treatment of enterobiasis in adults and children is carried out with drugs Pirantel, Mebendazol, Vermox. A single dose of age dosage is repeated 10-14 days before complete cure, confirmed by scraping.

It should be remembered that some preparations against helminths are quite toxic and contraindicated to pregnant and small children. Admission of anthelmintic drugs is only for medical purposes.

Destroyed with medicines pinworms cause intoxication (nausea, abdominal pain, headache). It is useful to carry out cleansing enemas or take sorbents (Activated charcoal, Lactofiltrum) to remove the products of decay of worms.

Prevention of enterobiasis

Elementary rules of hygiene can protect a person not only from pinworms and other intestinal parasites, but also anticipate the development of inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract and dysbiosis.

Prevention of enterobiasis includes:

  • Encourage the child to wash his hands before eating, after going to the toilet, after a walk.
  • Daily hygiene of the perineum and anal area - twice a day.
  • Daily change of panties after underwear.
  • Weekly change of bed linen, ironing of clean bedding. Washing is desirable with boiling (90C).
  • The frequency of the dwelling - wet cleaning, dust removal.
  • With often recorded helminthic invasions - getting rid of pets.
  • Prophylactic delivery of scraping to enterobiosis for children (kindergartens, schools), when filed in a swimming pool or a sanatorium, in contact with the infected family members.
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