• Decoding of online tests - urine, blood, general and biochemical.
  • What do bacteria and inclusions in urine analysis mean?
  • How to understand the analysis of the child?
  • Features of MRI-analysis
  • Special tests, ECG and ultrasound
  • Pregnancy rates and variance values ​​..
Explanation of analyzes

Ectopia of the cervix, what is it? Causes, types and methods of treatment

By ectopic cervix uterus means atypical location of cells of the cylindrical epithelium, which lined the internal cavity of the cervical canal. It shifts to those zones that normally should be covered with a flat epithelium.

At present, uncomplicated ectopy is not considered a life-threatening disease. Rather, on the contrary: many gynecologists claim that this is a normal condition of the cervix, which can be observed in women under 40 years old.

In gynecological practice, ectopy has other names, such as erosion, pseudo-erosion, endocervicosis. Soviet gynecologists used the term "erosion", but now, according to WHO, the atypical location of the cells of the cylindrical epithelium is officially assigned the term "ectopia". Let's take a closer look at what this is and is a danger to the health of women.


What is the danger of cervical ectopy?

Cervical Ectopy

Cervical ectopia of the cervix is ​​an arrangement of cells that does not pose a health hazard. The replacement of the flat epithelium by itself does not lead to oncological disease.

However, it must be taken into account that the type of epithelium tends to change over time, that is, the cylindrical epithelium will again be replaced by a planar epithelium. Because of this, ectopia of the cervix has a transformation zone - it provokes the onset of malignant transformations in the cell structure.

Therefore, despite the fact that erosion is not life threatening, the transformation zone promotes the appearance of cancer.

Replacement of the flat epithelium provokes a slow inflammatory process on the outer throat of the cervix. It can last for years and lead to more extensive lesions of the organs of the reproductive system. A prolonged inflammatory process can also cause the appearance of atypical cells, which eventually become malignant.

Causes of the appearance of ectopy

Cervical ectopia of the cervix

Hormonal changes in the body

According to the doctors' observations, ectopy practically does not occur in patients during menopause, and more than half of girls and women of reproductive age have this pathology. This gave grounds to assume that the displacement of the cylindrical epithelium occurs under the influence of hormones.

In this case, it does not lead to a slow inflammatory process, since there is no damage to the mucous membrane on the cervix. The prerequisite for the onset of cancer is only the epithelial transformation zone.

Inflammation of the cervix

Presence of STDs in active form, as well as recurrent cystitis, adnexitis and other forms of inflammation of the reproductive system organs provokes peeling of the flat epithelium on the external throat of the cervical canal.

The inflammatory process does not disappear and continues to progress. This makes the cervix vulnerable before the onset of cancer: on its surface there is a transformation zone, and a slow inflammation.

Mechanical damage to the cervix

The non-healing wound can be formed on the surface of the cervical canal as a result of birth injuries, inaccurate sexual contacts or when using contraceptive vaginal tablets or suppositories.

In this case, ectopia of the cervix is ​​dangerous not only because of the risk of degeneration of the epithelial cells into malignant cells, but also because of the vulnerability to infectious diseases.


The state of cervical ectopy can be classified according to two signs: the clinical form and the cellular composition, which is found during histological examination. The degree of danger of pathology will be determined depending on what kind of erosion the doctor will detect.

Uncomplicated ectopy is the displacement of the cylindrical epithelium, which is not an open wound, is not prone to inflammation and does not require any treatment.

Such erosion should be observed, annually undergoing a gynecological examination in order to take timely measures if atypical location of the cells starts to pose a threat to the health of the woman.

Complicated ectopy - suggests that cellular transformations on the surface of the cervical canal are not limited to just the displacement of the cylindrical epithelium.

Ectopia of the cervix is ​​complicated by chronic cervicitis and other inflammatory processes, as a result of which the entrance to the cervical canal is a non-healing ulcer.

Cell composition of tissues with ectopy

Glandular ectopia - is diagnosed in cases where histological examination reveals a multitude of glandular structures susceptible to the inflammatory process (there are signs of inflammatory infiltration). The very cylindrical epithelium, due to the ability of its cells to secrete secretion, is a glandular structure.

Papillary ectopia - is diagnosed when the cylindrical epithelium on the surface of the cervix grows in the form of papillae. Therefore, this pathology has another name - papillary ectopia. When histological study of the biomaterial on each papilla, there is a terminal vascular loop.

Epidermisable ectopia - assumes the presence of foci of flat epithelium among the overgrown cylindrical. This type of erosion is prone to self-healing and does not require special treatment.

Symptoms of cervical ectopy

Erosion can manifest itself in different ways, or not manifest at all - it all depends on the type of pathology. In one case, the symptoms of ectopy can be so obvious that they are noticeable without medical examination.

In another - a woman may not know for years about cellular changes in the cervix and not contact the gynecologist. Therefore, the list of signs of erosion will only be of a general nature:

  1. Pain during sexual intercourse. Appear during the moments of the deepest penetration of the penis into the vagina. The penis touches the wound surface on the cervix - hence the dull or sore pain.
  2. Bloody discharge, appearing some time after sexual intercourse. They can be present after each sex (if the ectopia is neglected), but more often appear only after intensive coition.
  3. Highlighting a large amount of whiter. Occurs because the external cervical canal is prone to constant inflammatory processes that provoke the vagina and cervix to intensively secrete secretion for the destruction of pathogenic bacteria.
  4. When gynecological examination, the cervix is ​​bright red, swollen.

If the signs of ectopic manifestation in the form of pain and contact bleeding, it indicates the need for treatment - alone such a pathology will not disappear.

Diagnosis of the disease

Diagnosis of ectopy

For the diagnosis of ectopia, colposcopy is used. There are two types of examination: an enlarged and conventional colposcopy. In most cases, a simple examination using gynecological mirrors is sufficient to make a diagnosis.

In cases when the doctor needs to determine the type of ectopia, an enlarged colposcopy is used, in which the pathologically altered portion of the cervix is ​​seen as an increase of several dozen times with the help of a colposcope.

Methods of treatment of cervical ectopy

treatment of cervical ectopy Modern clinics have a lot of ways to get rid of erosion. Some of them do not leave scars and are suitable for those women who in the future plan the birth of a child.

Therefore, before you decide on this or that method of erosion treatment, you should consult a doctor.

Radio wave surgery

  • Medical instruments: Surgitron
  • Intensity of pain: weak pulling sensations in the lower abdomen
  • Scars after intervention: none


A passive electrode is placed under the buttocks of the patient. A thin electrode with a steel tip is inserted into the vagina. Then the doctor selects the desired mode of operation of the device and begins the procedure for treating the cervix using radio waves with a frequency of 3.8-4.0 MHz.

Waves penetrate into tissues and provoke the evaporation of the upper layer of the epithelium, whose structure is disrupted by displacement or as a result of inflammatory processes.

The radio wave method of treating ectopy does not leave scarring behind, so it is popular among patients who plan to give birth to children. The effect of the procedure comes in 92 - 93% of cases.


  • Medical instruments: carbon dioxide CO2 laser
  • Intensity of pain: weak, does not require anesthesia
  • Scars after intervention: present


Before the procedure, the cervix is ​​treated with a special solution so that the doctor can clearly see the focus of pathological changes in the structure of the epithelium. Then the tip of the cryoprobe is applied to the entrance of the cervix, and the doctor assesses how well it covers the affected area.

Cryodestruction is necessary only when the area of ​​ectopia can be completely covered by the tip of a cryoprobe. Then the doctor turns on the device, sets a timer for the procedure, and starts processing the tissues, which takes place in several stages, involving alternating frost and thawing.

After the cryodestruction, the outer surface of the cervix becomes white. The effect of the procedure comes in 82-93% of cases.


  • Medical instruments: thermocauter
  • Intensity of pain: palpable
  • Scars after intervention: present


Since there is a fairly palpable pain with thermocoagulation, the physician can preliminarily produce a cervical spleen with lidocaine or novocaine.

With the help of a thermocouter, the pathologically altered portion of the epithelium is cauterized, the upper layers of the mucosa are destroyed - this allows the emergence of fresh layers of flat epithelium on the cervical canal after healing of the wound.

Thermocoagulation has been common for a long time, but it still has good results in the treatment of cylindrical ectopia of the cervix. The effect of the procedure comes in 93 - 95% of cases.

Laser destruction

  • Medical instruments: 10.6 μm CO2 laser laser
  • Intensity of pain: pronounced
  • Scars after intervention: none


The cervix is ​​treated with iodine to mark lesions. In the vagina, a laser is inserted, if necessary, the doctor performs local anesthesia.

Processing is carried out with high accuracy, the laser beam does not capture healthy tissues, therefore only the atypically located epithelium is to be vaporized.

When bleeding occurs, the doctor coagulates the vessels - this helps to perform laser destruction virtually bloodless. The effect of the procedure comes in 98 - 100% of cases.

Precautions after minimally invasive intervention

  1. Within a month after the treatment of ectopy, it is necessary to refrain from sexual contacts. Too early resumption of sexual activity can cause damage to the healing surface of the cervix.
  2. During the week, avoid lifting weights. Excessive physical exertion can prolong the recovery period.
  3. During the month, avoid douches and use tampons during menstruation. The wound surface after treatment is very vulnerable to infections that can easily penetrate the cavity of the cervix and cause an inflammatory process.
  4. After laser destruction during the recovery period, bleeding may occur. In case of such a problem, it is necessary to consult a doctor.

Ectopic cervix, which can be both in nulliparous and in women giving birth, should be kept under medical supervision and visited by a gynecologist at least once a year.

When viewed on a gynecological chair, the doctor conducts a simple colposcopy using mirrors, so he has a high chance of noticing dangerous changes in the structure of the epithelium and prescribing treatment to the patient.


The information is provided for information and reference purposes, a professional physician should prescribe a diagnosis and prescribe a treatment. Do not self-medicate. | | Contact Us | Advertising | © 2018 Medic-Attention.com - Health On-Line
Copying of materials is prohibited. Editorial site - info @ medic-attention.com