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Duodenitis: symptoms and treatment in adults, prognosis

What it is? Duodenitis is an inflammatory process in the mucous membrane of the duodenum (duodenum) that causes structural changes in the mucous membrane and leads to functional disorders of the organ. According to statistics, more than 10% of the population experienced the symptoms of duodenitis - this is the most common pathology of the initial section of the small intestine.

People of different age categories are subject to the disease. It is twice as common in men who are addicted to alcohol and are prone to "rampant" lifestyle. Difficult to tolerate the pathology of a woman. In them, it is accompanied by pathological processes in the endocrine glands and the central nervous system.

They provoke the development of duodenitis:

  • food poisoning and infections;
  • frequent consumption of provocative food (fried, fatty, salty, smoked);
  • alcohol or its surrogates;
  • dry food and damage to the mucous membrane of the intestinal wall by a foreign body.

In addition, the reactions of inflammation in the mucous membranes of the walls of the duodenum may be the result of ascariasis, Giardia, or tuberculosis, ENT infections and infections of the gallbladder.

The consequence of possible complications of certain diseases (damage to the mucous membrane of the stomach, inflammatory pathologies in the gallbladder, ulcerative damage to chronic kidney disease). Most often, the impetus for the development of duodenitis is gastritis, although the influence of food allergies is not excluded.


Symptoms of duodenitis, clinical signs


According to the stage and duration of clinical signs, duodenitis is characterized by an acute and chronic course.

Acute duodenitis

A prerequisite for the rapid development of acute duodenitis is poisoning, or a love for oriental spicy dishes. Against this background, inflammatory reactions on the mucous surface of the duodenum provoke the formation of ulcerative and erosive foci, sometimes ulcerative cavities filled with pus (cellulitis) are formed on the surface layer of the intestine. Symptoms of duodenitis in adults at the stage of the acute course manifest themselves:

  1. Acute pain in the stomach;
  2. Indigestion disorder;
  3. Vomiting, nausea and weakness.

The development of an acute process almost always provokes inflammation reactions in the intestines or stomach. Often it is diagnosed as gastric duodenitis, which is fundamentally wrong, the inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach cavity has its name - gastritis.

The provocative role contributing to the development of pathological inflammatory reactions in the mucous structure of the duodenum is played by impaired mobility or peristalsis, which makes it difficult to move the condensed contents of the small intestine to the outlet (duodenostasis).

If the treatment is correctly chosen and the patient is on a sparing diet, the inflammatory process in the duodenum is stopped rather quickly. But, in the case of re-inflammation of the intestinal walls, the stage of the chronic course of the disease develops.

Chronic duodenitis - HD

Symptoms of duodenitis in adults

The chronic stage of the disease is characterized by prolonged inflammatory reactions in the lower part of the small intestine. The disease is periodically exacerbated or proceeds with mild symptoms, sometimes with their complete absence.

It can occur independently (exogenously), as a primary disease, or be secondary (endogenous), against the background of various provocative factors (malnutrition, bad habits, inflammatory pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract).

The disease is classified according to the nature of the lesion:

  1. Non-atrophic (superficial).
  2. Hypertrophic (erosive).
  3. Atrophic.

According to localization - lesions of the proximal (central) and distal duodenal. Manifested by multiple clinical types:

  • gastritis;
  • ulcer-like;
  • cholecystoid;
  • pancreatoid;
  • mixed and asymptomatic.

The most distinct symptoms of chronic duodenitis manifest themselves in the phase of severe exacerbation of the disease. There are: pain syndromes associated with the pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract (abdominal), with intestinal and gastric disorders (dyspepsia), due to common disorders.

The genesis of pain symptoms is closely associated with duodenostasis syndrome - a pathological change in the motor-evacuation function of the duodenum, which provokes an increased sensitivity of the intestinal mucous membranes:

  • acidic residues of the stomach contents, with insufficient processing;
  • changes in gall and pancreatic hydrolysis;
  • functional disorders of the gall and virzungiy duct (pancreatic);
  • exposure to toxins of bacterial microorganisms.

The pronounced nature of HD exacerbations is almost always accompanied by signs of a “lazy stomach” syndrome caused by accompanying processes — chronic gastritis, local defects (GAL), gastroduodenal ulcers, and reflux of duodenitis. Common symptoms of chronic duodenitis manifest themselves:

  • Malaise and chronic fatigue;
  • Poor performance;
  • Apathy for food and aversion to a certain food group;
  • Violation of motor coordination and migraine;
  • Irritability and unstable mood
  • Sleep disturbance and anxiety;
  • Increased sweating or chilliness;
  • Hypotension and pathological disorders of the heart rhythm.

Abdominal symptoms of the DNA itself depend on the location of the inflammatory processes and have their own characteristic features.

Surface non-trophic duadenitis

Surface duadenitis

Duadenit photo

Due to minor inflammatory reactions in the mucous membranes of the distal small intestine, lasting more than three months. The pathogenic factor causes structural consolidation in the intestinal walls and the formation of corrugated folds on them.

External provoking factors provoke the disease with concomitant signs of fundic (damage to the body or the bottom of the stomach) gastritis.
Symptoms of superficial duodenitis are expressed by a pain syndrome that usually occurs with or immediately after a meal. Accompanied by:

  • increased temperature readings;
  • soreness in the abdomen and around the umbilical zone;
  • intoxication symptoms (vomiting, nausea).

Hypertrophic (erosive) duodenitis

It is characterized by a superficial defect of the intestinal mucous membrane due to erosive lesions. In addition to external factors, catalysts for development can be surgical interventions on internal organs, sepsis, thrombosis of the veins, diseases of the central nervous system and blood.

In the phase of exacerbation of superficial antral gastric gastritis, in the proximal part of the duodenum, the painful symptom can manifest itself as an ulcer-like symptom, one and a half later, two hours after eating, in a state of hunger, or during a night's sleep. Another portion of food and treatment of the symptoms of duodenitis, relieve pain (mainly antacids).

With the defeat of the distal parts, the disease manifests pain symptoms similar to the signs of pathological lesions of the pancreas and bile ducts. Soreness manifests itself in the epigastric zone, manifested by increased symptoms after eating meat, milk or sweets.

Cholecystoid-like variant of the disease is characterized by pain in the right zone from the navel radiating to the hypochondrium of the same side, and the pancreatoid-like variant - by pain in the epigastric region or in the left zone from the navel, gradually spreading over the lumbar region.

Reduces the pain of this form of erosive duodenitis, treatment with myogenic antispasmodic drugs and a special diet.

Provided motor-evacuation disorders, pain syndrome may appear paroxysmal or permanently present. It is localized in the right umbilical zone or in the epigastric (epigastric) zone, accompanied by rumbling and a feeling of bloating.

Particularly pronounced pain in the defeat of the serous cover of the duodenum. They are constantly present and aggravated by movement and shaking.

Duodenitis with atrophic course

It causes the defeat of the glands in the upper part of the small intestine, which provokes disorders in the secretory function of the duodenum and a decrease in the production of digestive juice. The intestinal mucosa is greatly thinned.

Joining enteritis with microflora imbalance and impaired patency in the upper intestine (duodenostasis) is almost always expressed by weight in the stomach and a feeling of fullness, bloating, gas formation and weak stool.

In pathological processes in the pancreas, digestive disorders and serious processes of atrophic gastritis, symptoms of duodenal atrophic course of the duodenum, signs of disturbances in the metabolic processes and symptoms of vitamin deficiency - weight loss, dry skin, brittle nails and hair.

In severe disorders of the bile duct, yellowing of the skin and sclera occurs. On the surface of the tongue appears bloom yellowish or yellow-whitish.

Treatment of duodenitis, drugs

Treatment of duodenitis, drugs

The disease is diagnosed based on the results of gastroscopy. Additional techniques include:

  • X-ray contrast examination of the stomach and upper colon;
  • biochemistry of blood and gastric secretion;
  • determination of acidity level;
  • Coptogram;
  • biopsy analysis, if a malignant process is suspected.

Treatment of chronic duodenitis is carried out depending on the clinical manifestations.

The patient is recommended a rest mode and a “hungry” diet for two days. Gastric and intestinal lavage is performed as necessary. Recommended drugs adsorbing properties, and therapeutic diet - pureed and steam dishes - not hot and not cold. In case of phlegmonous course, antibiotics or surgical intervention.

In the acute stage, patients with chronic duodenitis are treated in a hospital. Therapy is selected by the presence of background pathologies that caused the disease.

  1. In case of parasitic pathologies, treatment with Flagyl, Furazolidone, or Chloxin.
  2. Treatment of helicobacter pylori infection is carried out with antibiotic therapy (Metronidazole).
  3. Acidity is regulated by drugs - "Omeprazole", "Ranitidine" and their analogues.
  4. The intestinal mucosa is protected by coating agents - “De-nol” or “Sulfacrate”.
  5. Enzymes are used to restore digestive functions - Panzinorm, Mezim, Festal, Creon, Pancreatin.
  6. Prevention of inflammatory reactions is carried out by decoction of yarrow or pharmacy chamomile.
  7. In case of impaired motility of the duodenum, due to digestive disorders, the cause is eliminated by a conservative way - with a balanced balanced diet, choleretic drugs or sensing and washing of duodenum.

Prognosis and prevention of duodenitis

The main factor of prevention is a properly balanced diet and moderation of bad habits. Contribute to the prevention of the disease - timely examination and treatment of pathological processes in the gastrointestinal system, the use of drugs only for its intended purpose.

Prevention of recurrence is possible only with regular examination and monitoring of the condition by a doctor.

Subject to all recommendations of the attending physician, the prognosis is favorable.


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