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Dysarthria, what is it? - Types, symptoms and treatment of dysarthria

What it is?

Dysarthria is a speech disorder (sensorimotor disorder) caused by dysfunction of motor (phonetic) functions, causing a disturbance in vocalization and pronunciation.

Human voicing is not a completely unraveled and complex phenomenon - the frequency, timbre, loudness or tone range depends not only on the functioning of the muscular system involved in the functioning of individual pronunciation structures, but also on the natural potential of the entire human neuropsychiatric apparatus.

The development of speech is due to the coordinated activity of all brain functions and an extensive complex of neurons in various parts of the central nervous system regulating the work of the whole organism.

Dysarthria

Normal speech perception and the basics of articulation provide speech areas of the brain. They are located in a multilevel system of the cerebral cortex and regulate the mobile (dynamic) speech memory of a person.

Dysarthria is the result of a disruption in the communication of the speech apparatus with the central nervous system. The failure of the innervation processes develops errors in the articulation of speech pronunciation.

The genesis of development is due to local processes in the brain structures (injuries, strokes, tumors, intoxication and purulent processes), causing disorders of those areas of the brain that are responsible for mimic and articulation muscles.

Pathological processes in different parts of the dura mater are manifested by qualitatively distinct speech disorders, as a result of which the picture of the disease is expressed in accordance with the pathologies in a certain region of the brain structures, causing one or another form of the disease.

Content

Types and signs of dysarthria

In the clinical practice of articular pathologies, dysarthria, speech disorder, are divided into types and forms according to the location of pathological dysfunctions and the manifestation of symptoms accompanying the disease.

The cerebellar form of the disease is due to pathologies affecting the “small” posterior brain region (cerebellum), processes of neurons (nerves) that interconnect with the central nervous system and the cerebro-cerebral pathways. Manifested by a weakening in the skin-muscular lip folds and muscles of the tongue, causing spreading of its shape and restriction of mobility.

Fluctuations in muscle tension become an obstacle to maintaining normal articulation due to increased or insufficient movement. Manifesting itself:

  • Partial paralysis and sagging of the soft structures of the palate;
  • Difficult chewing process;
  • The gnarly pronunciation of many sounds;
  • Languid and inexpressive mimicry;
  • Indistinct, slow and obstructed speech;
  • Incorrect speech modulation and stress setting;
  • The cry of individual moments of speech and the fading of the voice at the end of sentences;
  • Shaky gait and lack of coordination.

Subcortical dysarthria is caused by pathological processes in the nuclear centers of the brain's gray matter, causing dysfunction in the brain control system (extrapyramidal), manifested by violations of muscular tension, sequence control and the strength of their contractions, natural movement automatism. The pathological process is accompanied by a violation of articulation and clarity of pronunciation.

Damages are inconstant and diverse, their manifestations depend on emotional subjective states. Characterized by:

  • Deviations in timbre, voice loud, sharp and hoarse;
  • The gradual weakening of the power of sounding words during a conversation, with the transition to a whisper;
  • Incomprehensible and not correct sound pronunciations;
  • Monotony and monotony of speech turns with a complete lack of emotions;
  • A big violation of the pronunciation of toning (vowel) sounds;
  • Distinct articulation at rest and a large distortion of pronunciation in a state of excitability;
  • Involuntary cries of guttural sounds.

In most cases, this symptom can be combined with hearing loss, in particular - auditory disturbances of high acoustic tones.

The form of bulbar dysarthria is caused by the symptom-complex abnormalities in the speech-motor analyzer due to various pathological processes in the medulla oblongata, causing muscular paresis or paralysis in the pharynx, tongue, palate, laryngeal muscles and mandible.

With the possible development of relaxation or muscle atrophy, which violates the swallowing function and the free passage of air during expiration, leading to:

  • To the weakening and nasal voices;
  • No pronunciation of voiced tones;
  • Replacing one sound with another (from stop to slot);
  • To the prevalence in conversation flat-plate hollow sounds.

The development of cortical dysarthria is a consequence of focal CNS lesions in the region of the cortical structures of the brain. This form displays a range of speech motor disorders in the form of:

  • Substitution sizzling sounds for whistling and vice versa;
  • Decay into component parts of the combinations of many consonants;
  • Substitutions of voiced sounds for deaf and hard for soft;
  • Increases the voice tone;
  • Slow and inert articulation;
  • Gaps in whole syllables or their permutations, due to the difficulty of certain movements of the language.

According to the severity of symptoms accompanying dysarthria, the disease has three stages:

  1. Light and erased, manifested persistent violation of articulation, in particular the pronunciation of whistling sounds and hissing.
  2. Medium or typical stages, characterized by clear articular disorders.
  3. Heavy, due to the complete absence of articulate pronunciation - anarthria.

Dysarthria in children - features of manifestation

Dysarthria in children

In contrast to the manifestation of articulation pathologies in adults who do not show impaired perception and the meaningful meaning of extraneous conversations, dysarthria of the child's speech is manifested in violations of the writing technique and reading parameters, distorted by sound perception.

Of all the forms of articulation disorder, the most common type of pediatric dysarthria is pseudobulbar, due to a complex neurological genesis.

Almost 85% of babies suffering from this pathology had a history of intrauterine pathology, injuries at birth, and who currently suffer from cerebral palsy.

The development of pathology is due to the defeat of the brain structures responsible for muscle dynamics, and cranial nerves, causing impaired fine motor skills and voluntary movements of the tongue (mainly its tip). The processes limiting the mobility of the articulation muscles or completely blocking them develop. The muscles of the tongue are strained and its movements are not expressed.

Sometimes it is noted by its tailedness posteriorly, which provokes the overlapping of the pharyngeal entrance. Stick your tongue out and hold it, the child does not always succeed. It deviates aside, or lie down on the lower lip fold. The tongue is passive and quickly tired of movement. Marked pathology in the motility of the facial muscles. The face acquires a mask-like, stationary state.

The defeat can be one-sided or left-sided, besides the fact that speech functions suffer, such children are not able to serve themselves (undress, get dressed), they hardly jump and run. Chewing functions are impaired, children refuse to eat, if it is firm, salivation is noted, which the child is unable to keep.

  • In infants, dysarthria manifests a violation of sucking functions, it often spits up food. Older kids do not make sounds at all, the first words, as a rule, are pronounced by the age of three. Kids have impaired fine motor function, they are very clumsy.

Blurred dysarthria in children

In order not to expose the child to serious psychological trauma and to start correcting the violations in time, it is very important to promptly diagnose the erased form of dysarthria in the child due to minor (point) damage to the brain structures.

  • Pathological processes are manifested by partial paresis of individual articulation muscles (one side of the tongue, or just the tip).

With erased dysarthria, the characteristics of the speech tempo and rhythm remain unchanged, and only the articulation of individual sounds is disturbed. Speech disorders in the erased form of dysarthria are also manifested by external signs. Because of the muscular pareticheskih in the language, it can not be kept behind the teeth, which is manifested by interdental pronunciation.

Sometimes there is lateral articulation of consonants, due to partial unilateral paresis of the tongue. If the child sticks him out, then his deviation to the side is noticeable, and during a conversation, in the mouth he assumes the position of an edge, providing lateral air leakage.

Erased dysarthria is never corrected with age, as evidenced by its presence among many people of different age groups.

On the diagnosis of dysarthria

Speech therapy is a major factor in the diagnosis and treatment of dysarthria in children. The work on articulation correction is carried out with the participation of a neurologist and a speech therapist, since the treatment of background pathology is closely intertwined with the restorative functions of speech.

Diagnostic search begins with the identification of neurological and physical abnormalities, anamnesis - a standard survey to identify the causative factor of the manifestation of the disease.

The speech therapist fills the speech characteristics map, where the aspects of speech development are recorded - the appearance of the first words, the assessment of the level of pronunciation, the identification of difficulties with reading and writing.

Dysarthria treatment - drugs, massage and correction

Dysarthria treatment

Treatment of dysarthria in the form of a photo

Effective treatment of dysarthria in children includes a medical-pedagogical complex of effects - drug therapy, speech therapy correction, exercise therapy, massage and breathing exercises.

Drug therapy is prescribed by a neurologist individually, taking into account the background pathology. Including:

  1. Preparations for cerebral vessels - “Cinnarizine”, “Cavinton”, “Instenona” or “Gliatiline” and “Stugeron”.
  2. Neurometabolic stimulants - Encephabol, Pantocalcin and Pikamilon.
  3. Metabolic agents, in the form of "Actovegin", "Cerebrolysin" and "Cerebrolizate."
  4. Psychotropic drugs - from the series "Novo-Passita", "Persena", "Tenotena".

Speech therapy correction includes articulation exercises and restorative gymnastics:

  • for the formulation of proper respiratory functions;
  • for the development of speech hearing, memory and attention sharpness;
  • to stimulate motor coordination and articulation.

Speech therapy massage, in the treatment of dysarthria in a child, is aimed at relaxing and stimulating the lips, palate and tongue, which will contribute to the restoration of articulation. Massages are corrected by a speech therapist. It includes light kneading, straight, wavy and spiral stroking, stretching lips and tingling.

Having mastered the technique of massage, it is quite possible to carry out independently in the form of a game to interest the child.

Exercise exercises and breathing exercises are selected individually and include a variety of different techniques for different age groups - classical forms and games. The main focus - the restoration of motor function and proper breathing.

Excellent results in treatment can be achieved by approaching the problem comprehensively and seriously. Strict adherence to all the recommendations of the doctor will allow the baby to get rid of the complexes, to attend children's institutions along with healthy children, quite a bit behind the level of development.

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