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Diffuse mastopathy: causes, signs and treatment

Diffuse mastopathy is accompanied by structural changes in the tissues in the mammary gland. The disease develops for various reasons and is likely to degenerate into breast cancer.

What it is? Diffuse mastopathy of the mammary glands is a pathology in which connective tissue grows in the breast. Initially, it is benign, but in the absence of timely adequate treatment can be transformed into a malignant tumor.

Changes, as a rule, affect the whole breast, and not its individual parts. Other pathology names: mammary dysplasia, diffuse fibro-adenomatosis, dyshormonal hyperplasia.

The connective elements replace the epithelial tissue and grow in the chest in the form of strands and unformed granular nodules. As a result, the structure of the lobules and ducts of the gland is broken, the compaction increases in size, and the diffuse form of mastopathy can pass into the nodular.

Content

Causes of diffuse mastopathy

Causes of diffuse mastopathy

This disease is polyethological, that is, it develops under the influence of a complex of factors. Among them, some diseases, a genetic predisposition, a way of life, reproductive characteristics of the organism, an unfavorable ecological situation.

But the physiological cause of diffuse mastopathy is always hidden in the hormonal imbalance - an excess of estrogen and prolactin and a deficiency of progesterone.

Reproductive risk factors include:

  • absence of pregnancy and childbirth, infertility;
  • abortions;
  • late first childbirth (after 30-35 years);
  • refusal of breastfeeding or short duration;
  • early onset of menstruation (up to 12 years);
  • pathology of the genital area (dysfunction of the ovaries, adnexitis , oophoritis and others).

The development of diffuse fibrocystic mastopathy of mammary glands is affected by hypothyroidism - an inadequate production of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. Adverse factors include obesity, adrenal gland diseases, hepatitis, diabetes mellitus , cholecystitis.

The risk increases with the abuse of smoking and alcohol, sunbathing topless in the solarium and in the sun, as well as with chronic stress, poor diet, lack of regular sex life.

Symptoms of diffuse mastopathy

Symptoms of diffuse mastopathy

The main symptom is the soreness of the mammary glands (mastalgia), which occurs in the second half of the cycle. The pain is aching, bursting, sometimes stitching and can spread to the underarm area, shoulder, back, neck, in the hypochondrium.

The chest swells, its tissues are compacted evenly, and when felt, small granular formations are felt. These signs of diffuse cystic mastopathy decrease after the onset of menstruation and disappear in the first half of the cycle only at the first stages of the development of the disease.

In the late stages of mastalgia is constantly present.

Hormonal imbalances (high levels of estrogen and prolactin and a lack of progesterone) lead to such symptoms:

  • delay of menstruation;
  • painful or profuse menstruation or lack thereof;
  • pronounced symptoms of PMS (drowsiness, irritability, tearfulness);
  • brittle and dull hair, dry skin.

Less often with diffuse mastopathy from the nipples a liquid of whitish, gray-greenish color or with an admixture of blood is secreted.

Classification of diffuse type mastopathy

Depending on the nature of the changes in the tissues of the breast, these types of dyshormonal hyperplasia are distinguished:

  • diffuse glandular mastopathy;
  • cystic;
  • fibrous;
  • mixed;
  • sclerosing - the most onkoopasnaya form with deposition in the tissues of calcium salts (calcinates).

Diffuse fibrous mastopathy of mammary glands is more often detected in young patients and during puberty. The cystic form is common among menopausal women.

By the degree of tissue change, mammary gland dysplasia is weak, moderately and strongly pronounced.

Diagnostic methods for determining diffuse mastopathy:

  • Examination of the mammary glands and their palpation, revealing painful to the touch seals without clear boundaries.
  • Mammography - determines the form of the disease and the presence or absence of malignant elements.
  • Ultrasound - shows an increase in the echinodality of the glandular tissue, fibrous changes in the structure of lobular septa and the walls of the ducts.
  • Ductography - is performed with discharge from the nipples, reveals the deformation of the milk ducts.
  • Analysis of the smear from the nipple is needed to exclude pathologies similar in features to dysplasia of the mammary glands (actinomycosis, syphilis or tuberculosis of the breast).

Additional diagnosis of diffuse mastopathy includes the analysis of sex and thyroid hormones, biopsy and MRI of the mammary glands, taking a liver test, a blood test for oncomarkers, ultrasound of the pelvic organs.

Treatment of diffuse mastopathy

Treatment of diffuse mastopathy

Means of drug therapy are chosen by the attending physician depending on the form and stage of mastopathy:

  • Antiestrogens (Phareston, Tamoxifen).
  • Competent selection of oral contraceptives (Silestus, Marvelon, Femoden).
  • The gestagens also have an anti-estrogenic effect (Norkolut, Pregnil, Organometr).
  • Hormones of the thyroid gland.
  • With increasing prolactin and secretions from the nipples appoint Bromocriptine, Parlodel.
  • Diuretic preparations.
  • NVPS for pain and swelling (Diclofenac or others).
  • Soothing means (tincture of motherwort, Novopassit).
  • Vitamins, dietary supplements, potassium iodide.
  • Phytotherapy (Vitokan, Alfit-9, Phytolone, Ekstal-5).
  • Homeopathy for the reduction of prolactin (Remens, Mastodinon).
  • Adaptogens (Clamin, magnolia extract, eleutherococcus).
  • For topical application ointments and creams are prescribed - Mamavit, Lekar, Phytol-1, Progestogel.

Treatment for diffuse mastopathy involves a diet with a predominance of vegetables, fruits, herbs, dairy products, sources of iodine (sea kale, cod liver, prunes).

Useful, nuts, seafood, fish, legumes. The maximum limit should be sharp and smoked dishes, coffee, cocoa, tea, chocolate, animal fats, flour products, marinades and salty foods.

The effectiveness of therapy increases physical exercise and physiotherapy (electrophoresis, mud therapy, galvanization, therapeutic baths).

Thermal influences - sauna, bath, hot compresses on the chest and wraps, as well as a solarium or sunbathing are forbidden.

Prevention

To prevent diffuse breast mastopathy, it is important:

  • healthy lifestyle;
  • full sexual life;
  • absence of stress;
  • timely treatment of gynecological and hormonal diseases;
  • the use of modern means of contraception and the prevention of abortion;
  • wearing comfortable underwear that does not squeeze the chest.

The risk of hyperplasia of the mammary glands reduces early labor (20-25 years), a full lactation period. In time to detect changes in the breast allows regular self-examination and visits to the mammologist at least once a year.

Interesting

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