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Diabetic foot: symptoms and treatment, photos, drugs

People with a diagnosis of diabetes have a risk of complicating the disease - diabetic foot.

A number of pathological processes trigger the formation of wounds, ulcers and tissue necrosis.

Content

Symptoms of diabetic foot, photo

Symptoms of diabetic foot

Diabetes causes the destruction of blood vessels, skin and the layers beneath them. The big toes and pads under the fingers are most vulnerable.

With the development of diabetic foot syndrome, the outflow of blood from the lower extremities is disturbed, the stagnation of fluid leads to the formation of weeping ulcers.

Irritation, redness and odor from one or both legs are a common early symptom.

A sign of a serious foot ulcer is black tissue (scab) surrounding the ulcer. It is formed due to the lack of normal blood flow.

Partial or complete gangrene occurs due to tissue death under the influence of an infection. There is an odorous discharge, a person may feel pain.

The emergence of ulcers, photo 2

The emergence of ulcers, photo 2

Progression of symptoms, photo 3

Progression of symptoms, photo 3

An ulcer is not always obvious, sometimes symptoms are absent. It can develop subcutaneously, as indicated by discoloration of the skin. Sometimes it is a black spot, a bit painful when pressed on adjacent tissues.

Symptoms accompanying diabetic foot syndrome:

  • dry skin of the feet and feet;
  • change in temperature of leg areas;
  • puffiness;
  • flat feet;
  • pain in the legs when moving and resting;
  • subcutaneous hemorrhage;
  • bluish tissue;
  • ulcers and festering wounds.

To hesitate to visit the doctor can not. On examination, he will determine the severity of the pathological process. To do this, there is an evaluation scale using objective criteria:

0 - ulcers are not detected, but the limb is in potential danger.
1 - ulcers are available, there are no signs of infection.
2 - deep ulcer, exposing tendons and joints.
3 - extensive ulcer, the formation of abscesses from infection.
4 - gangrenous tissue change.

Severe condition, photo 4

Severe condition, photo 4

Gangrene in diabetic foot is the most severe complication. The process of dying off of tissues is promoted by severe circulatory disorders and the addition of an anaerobic infection. Complication develops rapidly, it is irreversible.

In the absence of medical care, a person dies from blood poisoning. Radical treatment - limb amputation.

Conduct antibiotic therapy, cleanse the body of toxins. Regular monitoring of the condition of the feet and legs prevents the development of gangrene.

Diagnostic methods

The doctor at the reception examines the patient’s medical history and examines. He will be interested in:

  • pain intensity, its duration;
  • when the first changes in the structure of the foot occurred (deformation);
  • associated diseases and complications of diabetes .

A visual examination assesses the color of the feet, probes the pulse and examines the sensitivity.

Laboratory diagnostic methods:

  • blood glucose testing;
  • glycated hemoglobin analysis;
  • blood clotting analysis;
  • blood cholesterol.

The patient determines the sensitivity of the feet to temperature and vibration. On ultrasound (Doppler) check the condition of the vessels, assess the blood flow and pressure in the arteries of the lower extremities.

With duplex scanning, locate the narrowing of the arteries. The blood supply to the tissues is checked by transcutaneous oximetry. Informative X-rays of bones and joints.

In case of trophic ulcers , the contents of the wound are sown on the microflora, while sensitivity to antibiotics is examined.

Diabetic Foot Treatment

You can get expert help from a surgeon or an endocrinologist at either the specialized diabetes care centers (Diabetic Foot Center) or the clinic.

The earlier the patient notices changes in the feet, the more favorable the prognosis for treating the disease.

In all forms of diabetic foot, it is recommended to relieve the limb, reduce the load and pressure on the affected tissue. Otherwise, the infection will expand. For overweight patients, pressure on the foot causes constant pain.

Diabetic Foot Treatment

Surgical treatment, photo 5

When deforming the feet, the patient is recommended to wear special insoles, comfortable shoes. According to the testimony, an operation is performed on the vessels to improve the blood supply to the lower extremities.

Comprehensive treatment of diabetic foot consists of:

  • sanitation of ulceration on the skin of the feet;
  • reducing the load on the limb;
  • antibiotic therapy;
  • blood sugar control;
  • to give up smoking.

The doctor removes dead tissue and skin from the ulcer. Infection is a serious complication of the foot and requires immediate treatment. Not all infections are treated equally. The tissues surrounding the ulcer are sent to a laboratory to select a suitable antibiotic.

The patient needs to clarify how to properly care for your feet in order to prevent infection of the ulcer:

  • foot baths;
  • disinfection of the skin around the ulcer;
  • frequent dressing changes to keep the wound dry;
  • sterility of dressing.

The doctor will prescribe antibiotics, antiplatelet or anti-clotting drugs to treat diabetic foot ulcers if the infection progresses.

Antimicrobial agents are used to treat wounds (Chlorhexidine, Dioxidin, etc.). Lubricate the wounds and damage needed after disinfection, suitable for this gel Solcoseryl, Actovegil, etc.

With diabetic foot, iodine and brilliant green cannot be used - they burn tissue and prevent healing.

The wound is treated by a nurse or doctor, the dead particles are removed and washed. Therapeutic treatments allow you to do without surgery if an ulcer is detected at an early stage. It is important to ensure unloading of the limb at this stage.

Great importance is attached to the shoes worn by the patient. Rest and limited limbs in an upright position are recommended. To do this, use a special immobilizing bandages on the foot and lower leg.

Ozonotherapy, photo 7

Ozonotherapy, photo 7

If the process takes a serious course and severe tissue damage is observed, the dressing is excluded. Orthopedic shoes serve only as a preventive measure.

The danger of the formation of trophic ulcers exists constantly, if the level of glucose in the blood rises. This worsens the healing of wounds on the skin of the feet. Selected therapy to control sugar levels facilitates monitoring and reduces the likelihood of developing diabetic foot.

It is necessary to convince the patient to give up bad habits. Alcohol and smoking increases the risk of atherosclerosis and alcohol neuropathy. In addition, the stability of glucose in the blood.

Further:

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