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Blood pressure - how it should be in a healthy person

As long as we feel good, such a thing as blood pressure is of little interest to us. We begin to evaluate the indicator of blood pressure and monitor its changes only after the occurrence of unpleasant symptoms that indicate a malfunction of the body. What is a blood pressure, what it depends on and how it should be normal in a healthy person?

Content

What is blood pressure

Blood pressure, often denoted by the abbreviation AD, is the force with which the blood flow during the movement presses against the walls of blood vessels. It would be more reasonable to call it blood, because blood flows not only through arteries, but also through veins and capillaries. However, blood pressure is most often measured in large arterial vessels close to the surface of the body, therefore the indicator is called arterial pressure.

Blood pressure depends on the strength and frequency of contractions of the heart, on how much blood it passes through the atria and ventricles within one minute, on the state of the vessel walls, and on the composition of the blood.

Blood pressure is the most important medical indicator that can tell a doctor about the state of the cardiovascular, endocrine and autonomic nervous system of a person. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury, and is recorded as a fraction.

There are two main values ​​- upper and lower pressure, which is correctly called systolic and diastolic, as well as pulse pressure. Systolic determines the blood pressure on the blood vessels at the time of systole, that is, heartbeat. This value is directly related to the work of the heart, the strength and frequency of its contractions, as well as the resistance of the vessel walls.

Diastolic pressure is fixed at the time of relaxation of the ventricles of the heart (diastole). This indicator gives an idea of ​​the minimum blood pressure in the arteries, it depends only on the state of the vessel walls, on their resistance to blood flow.

Pulse pressure reflects the fluctuations of blood vessels in the moments between contractions and relaxation of the heart (systoles and diastoles). If blood pressure is measured by a tonometer, the pulse pressure is calculated mathematically. From the number of systolic pressure subtract the number of diastolic and get the value of the third indicator.

Schematic representation of systole (heartbeat) and diastole (cardiac muscle relaxation)

Blood pressure includes two values ​​- blood pressure on the vessels during systole (MAP) and diastole (DBP)

What pressure is considered normal in an adult?

What affects blood pressure? In an absolutely healthy person, blood pressure indicators may change. This occurs under the influence of many factors.

  • Decreased blood pressure may occur in the summer, in the heat, when the mechanism of reflex vascular dilation is activated so that the body does not overheat. Some people often have a so-called orthostatic effect, that is, a decrease in blood pressure with a sharp rise from the bed. Vessels and the heart can not be reconstructed so quickly and a person experiences tinnitus, blackening of the eyes, goosebumps, short-term weakness, that is, symptoms of low blood pressure.
  • With considerable physical exertion and sports, the work of the heart increases, respectively, an increase in blood pressure occurs.
  • The blood pressure of a healthy person depends on the regulation by internal mechanisms - the central nervous system and hormones (adrenaline, cortisol). Therefore, throughout the day, the figures vary. During rest, sleep, blood pressure decreases, during wakefulness, and especially during stress, it may increase.

Optimum pulse pressure

According to the pulse pressure figure, the cardiologist will easily determine in what state the patient’s vessels: their lumen, elasticity of the walls, is there a stenosis (narrowing), spasms or inflammatory processes. Normally, the pulse pressure is 35 mm Hg. Art. Up to 40 years, 25–40 figures are allowed; at a later age, 50 mmHg. Art. Significant deviations from these figures signal pathological processes in the organs of the cardiovascular system, even if the systolic pressure is normal and is 120–130 mm Hg. Art.

PD below 30 is a clear signal of a serious problem. We can talk about serious diseases:

  • large blood loss;
  • heart failure;
  • left ventricular stroke;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • myocarditis;
  • cardiosclerosis.

The deviation of the indicator in the direction of increasing - more than 60 - indicates equally serious problems.

Cardiologists say: increased pulse pressure is worse than lower, as it indicates a large load on the heart, which most often happens with a high degree of hypertension. In addition, the causes may be other diseases:

  • atherosclerosis;
  • intracranial hypertension;
  • thyroid disease;
  • anemia;
  • endocarditis;
  • chronic insufficiency of internal organs.

It happens that PD changes upward in absolutely healthy people. The reason may be hard physical labor, very fast running. In this case, the indicator should return to normal within a quarter of an hour after the cessation of the load. If this does not happen, then it is worth the alert. Interestingly, the reduction of pulse pressure, even short-term, in healthy people is never observed.

Norms

Modern doctors use standards that can be applied to any age. However, average averaged values ​​for certain age groups are most often taken into account.

Modern medical classification of normal blood pressure in adults is as follows:

  • optimal pressure is below 120/80 mm Hg. Art.
  • normal pressure is 120 / 80–129 / 84 mm Hg. Art.
  • high normal blood pressure - 130 / 85–139 / 89 mm Hg. Art.

All indicators within these figures are considered normal. The limit of the norm of low pressure is considered to be the value of 90/60. If the tonometer gives out figures below these, then there is a question about hypotension, that is, a pathological decrease in blood pressure.

Indicators of normal blood pressure on the tonometer display

Normal blood pressure is considered to be 120/80 mm. Hg st

In different healthy people, normal rates may vary significantly.

With age, certain changes occur in the body and the indicators gradually shift from optimal to normal, and then to normal high. Since changes in the heart and blood vessels occur very slowly, the body manages to adapt and the person does not feel this age-related increase in blood pressure.

In addition to age, the rate of pressure for each individual is influenced by his gender and constitutional features - height, weight.

Therefore, special formulas have been created, designed to calculate the rate of pressure for a particular person, given his age and body weight.

Volynsky formula is designed to calculate the rate of blood pressure in people from 17 to 79 years. Indicators of upper (SAP) and lower (DBP) pressure are calculated separately:

SAD = 109 + (0.5 × number of years) + (0.1 × weight in kg)

DBP = 63 + (0.1 × years of life) + (0.15 × weight in kg)

A person's AD is directly related to the weight of his body. With increasing weight, the pressure increases: an extra 10 kg on average give an increase in blood pressure of 5 mm Hg. Art.

Table: Rates of blood pressure depending on gender and age

Age SAD / DAP in men,
mm Hg Art.
SAD / DAP in women
mm Hg Art.
Note
Up to 1 year 96/66 95/65 Deviations from these norms within
10 mmHg Art. considered valid.
1–10 103/69 103/70
10–20 123/76 116/72
20–30 126/79 120/75
30–40 129/81 127/80
40–50 135/83 137/84
50–60 142/85 144/85
60–70 145/82 159/85
70–80 147/82 157/87
80–90 145/78 150/79

Interestingly, the norms for men and women under 40 are different - for men, the figures are higher. After this age line, the numbers change for women in the direction of increasing. This is due to hormonal changes in the female body. Differ in blood pressure and pregnant women. Up to 6 months pregnant blood pressure within the age norm. In the third trimester, under the influence of progesterone, most pregnant women experience pressure drops, possibly increasing to 130/80. If the pressure in a pregnant woman rises to 140/90, then this is an indication for additional examinations of the expectant mother.

Most often, indicators of blood pressure on the right and left hand are different. This may be due to factors such as:

  • anatomical features;
  • differences in the development of muscles on different hands;
  • stress;
  • circulatory disorders;
  • atherosclerosis.

If the figures differ slightly, up to 5 mm Hg. Art., there is no cause for concern. If the discrepancies are more significant, about 10 mm, then we can assume the presence of atherosclerosis.
The difference in 15-20 mm Hg. Art. and says more about more serious health problems:

  • coronary heart disease;
  • hypertension;
  • violation of cerebral circulation;
  • vascular pathologies.

Symptoms of high and low blood pressure

The ideal are those indicators of blood pressure, with which a person feels good. Such individual “working” pressure may not fit into the framework of generally accepted medical standards.
Deviation of indicators from its norm can cause unpleasant symptoms.

Low blood pressure (hypotension) manifests itself as follows:

  • weakness;
  • sleepiness;
  • fatigue;
  • nausea;
  • darkening of the eyes;
  • heaviness in the head;
  • decrease in working capacity;
  • dull headache;
  • fainting is possible.

When the weather changes, these symptoms intensify, since hypotensive is very meteo-dependent. At low pressure, the orthostatic effect, which was described above, is pronounced.

Headache with reduced pressure

Headache, weakness, drowsiness, flashing of "flies" before the eyes testify to low blood pressure

A slight increase in pressure may not manifest itself subjectively. If hypertension develops gradually, then the body manages to adapt, to turn on compensatory mechanisms. With a sharp significant increase in blood pressure the situation changes. A person feels the following symptoms:

  • severe pressing pain in the back of the head;
  • noise or even a buzz in the ears;
  • congestion in the ears;
  • lack of coordination of movements;
  • there may be a pressing pain behind the sternum.

These symptoms - a signal that you need to urgently consult a doctor.

Video: What is AD

In order to maintain health and longevity, each person must monitor the state of his body and respond to alarming signals in time if they appear. Blood pressure gives a clear picture of the state of the body’s most important cardiovascular system. By controlling these indicators, you can avoid serious health problems.

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