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Ringworm in a person: photo, initial stage, symptoms and treatment

Dermatomycosis - fungal diseases. They are the most common and highly infectious processes. Among all the pathological processes of the skin, they constitute 42%, i.e. almost half.

In the world, every fifth person had at least 1 episode of ringworm.

Part of ringworm develops when infected with dermatophytes - mold fungi of three main genera:

  • Epidermofitony - Epidermophyton;
  • Microsporums - Microsporum;
  • Trichophyton - Trichophyton.

Such an introduction about dermatoxemia is not in vain here - after all, ringworm belongs to "their gang" ... see the photo in the symptoms section.

Content

Ringworm - what is it?

Ringworm in a person: photo

photo of one of the manifestations of ringworm in humans

ringworm on the face photo

ringworm on the face photo

Ringworm is a concept that generalizes two types of dermatophytosis of the scalp that occur during infection with trihofitons and microsporums: superficial trichophytosis and microsporia.

This unification was due to similarly visible lesions on the head, looking like areas on which hair was cut (“ringworm”). . However, by the type of pathogen, methods of infection and some other factors, these diseases differ .

1) Ringworm caused by trichophyton infection

In this case, ringworm occurs when infected with two types of trihofitonov: Tr. violaceum and Tr.crateritome (tonsurans). . These species are anthropophilic, that is, they affect only humans, therefore, when trichophytosis, ringworm is transmitted only between people . In animals, these species do not parasitize and do not cause the development of dermatophytosis.

Trichophyton infection occurs:

  • Directly from a person with a superficial or chronic form of the disease;
  • Indirectly, through personal items: combs, towels, hats, gloves, clothes, underwear. Chance of transmission through carpets, books, notebooks. This is due to the fact that desquamated scales and lost hair are long able to keep the pathogen in an active (infectious) form.

Infection can occur in schools, boarding schools, kindergartens, hairdressers and gyms. But most often there is an intra-family pathway of infection, when children get the fungus from adults suffering from the chronic form of this infection.

In 80% of cases, chronic trichophytosis occurs in women. The most dangerous in terms of transmission are patients with fresh manifestations of depriving, because These fungi are particularly infectious (contagious).

— обусловлен заражением одним из двух видов грибов-микроспорумов: 2) Ringworm, as a manifestation of microsporia - due to infection by one of two types of microsporum fungi:

  • M. ferrugineum, which is anthropophilic, that is, lives on human skin and is transmitted only between people. It is called the "rusty" microsporum. It is characterized by high contagion. In the European part, this type of fungus rarely becomes the cause of the disease, but in Asia, Japan, the countries of Indochina it is found very often;
  • M. Canis (lanosum) is a zoophilic variety of microsporum that parasitizes the skin of animals, mostly cats, less often dogs. Called "fluffy" or "cat" microsporum. Primary hit of a microorganism to a person comes from a sick animal, further transfer of this type of fungus between people is possible in 2% of cases. This species is the most common cause of microsporia in humans - 100 thousand new cases are registered annually in Russia and European countries.

Almost always, microsporia infection occurs on contact with a sick animal, as well as things that fall on skin scales, animal hair with fungus spores: pillows, blankets, carpets, sofas, clothing.

People can transmit the pathogen to each other through combs, scarves, hats and other things in contact with the patient's hair and skin.

Incubation period of ringworm and disease progression

The incubation period of ringworm (this is the time that passes from the moment of infection to the clinical manifestations of the disease) with trichophytia ranges from 7 to 15 days, with microsporia from 5 to 10 days.

During this period, the person is most dangerous, because no one knows that it is infected (there is no characteristic symptoms).

Incubation period of ringworm The penetration of fungi inside the skin due to the fact that all dermatophytes are able to produce special enzymes with keratolytic properties. This means that these chemicals destroy keratin, as well as collagen and elastin - the most important components of the skin barrier.

This facilitates the introduction of the fungus into the skin and the subsequent development of its colonies there. The second mechanism that allows fungi to spread in the skin is their ability to form hyphae.

These formations in the form of tentacles are capable of directed growth - they act on the joints between the cells, pushing them apart and sprouting between them.

In children, however, there is an initial lack of compactness of the epidermis and a low density of keratin. Thanks to the ability of dermatophytes, penetration into the skin of a child for fungal flora is not difficult.

  • Therefore, children are so sensitive to ringworm and are the vast majority of patients with this form of ringworm. Especially often these types of mycoses are observed in preschoolers and younger students, and microsporia can occur even in infants.

According to some data, previously considered possible passage of the fungus through all layers of the skin and its further spread through the body through the blood, is not confirmed by modern studies. As a rule, various layers and structures of the skin, which they cannot get around, stand in the way of microorganisms, and the dermatophyte infection does not go beyond the layer of dead cells.

Deep spread of mycosis occurs when the skin loses its normal protective functions, which occurs in severe diseases of the immune system, for example, in HIV infection.

The development of any type of ringworm is facilitated by the general weakness of the body and the immune system, intoxication, the presence of diseases of other organs, as well as the presence of endocrine disorders.

The chemical composition of sweat is also important, which can be especially aggressive, and lead to a violation of the protective barrier of the skin.

According to recent data, the transition of microsporia in adults to the chronic form often occurs with SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus), chronic glomerulonephritis, chronic candidiasis, and AIDS.

Symptoms of ringworm, photo

Symptoms of ringworm

photo of ringworm symptoms

With ringworm in a person, the symptoms depend on the type of pathogen.

Проявления трихофитии обозначаются как «лишай черных точек»: 1. Manifestations of trichophytosis are referred to as “deprive of black spots”:

  • Many small foci, no more than 2 cm in size. Merge into large foci in a difficult process;
  • The foci form is round and oval;
  • The boundaries are clear;
  • Hair breaks at the level of the skin, has a length of 1-3 mm and is visible at the mouth of the follicle in the form of a crooked "hemp" or a black dot;
  • There are no signs of inflammation, i.e. there is no redness, swelling, pain and local hyperthermia (foci to the touch not hot);
  • The location of the lesions over the entire head.

With ringworm, a person has symptoms

Стригущий лишай у человека в начальной стадии при микроспории характеризуется появлением очагов поражения под названием «лишай серых пятен»: 2. Ringworm in a person in the initial stage of microsporia is characterized by the appearance of lesions called "lichen gray spots":

  • More often one or two large ones are 3-5 cm, sometimes several more small foci are defined, 0.3-1 cm in size;
  • The shape is round or oval;
  • The boundaries are clear;
  • Hair is broken off and protrude 6-8 mm above the surface of the skin, dull, gray;
  • Fragments of hair are densely covered with gray-white scales in the form of a cover from mushroom spores;
  • The location of the lesions more often on the edge of hair growth, on the border with smooth skin;
  • There is a lesion of eyelashes, eyebrows, eyelid skin;
  • Inflammatory changes on the skin are rarely observed, although in recent years such manifestations have become much more frequent, leading to late diagnosis due to the atypicalness of the clinical picture. These include redness of the skin, swelling, and discharge of pus from under the crusts.

Ringworm in man

Visual diagnosis of ringworm complements the laboratory microscopic examination of the hair. Detection of the mycelium of the fungus is sufficient reason to make a diagnosis and start treatment.

In the case of trichophytia, large spores of the fungus are located directly inside the hair in the form of chains, this type of infection is called endotrix infection.

With microsporia, an ectotrix infection occurs - spores are mosaically arranged around the hair outside, they are small and create a kind of cover (“Adamson case”).

The causative agent of microsporia can be identified by means of express diagnostics: when radiating hair with the Wood's fluorescent lamp, microsporia have a green glow.

Treatment of ringworm in humans, drugs

Treatment for ringworm in humans, terbinafine ointment If symptoms similar to the ringworm of a person are detected, it is better to carry out the treatment in a special “mycotic” office or in the general dermatology department.

The use of only local treatment in most forms of hair dermatophytosis has a very low effectiveness.

To treat ringworm in humans effectively became possible only after the invention of the so-called "systemic" antifungal drugs used orally. Until this time, ringworm implied long-term isolation of the child to avoid the spread of mycosis, and in the treatment the main method was to remove infected hair as much as possible, which led to a significant cosmetic defect, especially for girls.

Currently, for the treatment of dermatophytosis, specific drugs are used that act only on dermatophytes, such as terbinafine and griseofulvin. According to some literature data, in Russia, griseofulvin is more often used for the treatment of dermatophytosis of the scalp.

It is also possible to use other antifungal drugs, such as ketoconazole, imidazole, fluconazole, which have a wider range of effects and destroy not only dermatophytes.

The treatment of trichophytia and microsporia is generally identical and consists in the use of a complex of drugs and special measures:

  • Systemic antimycotic drug:

- Griseofulvin inside, adding the drug to a teaspoon of vegetable oil, 3 times a day. This technique continues until a negative laboratory analysis. Then take 2 p / d for 2 weeks, the next 14 days take the drug every other day;

- Alternative medication (lack of effect, allergy, the presence of contraindications): terbinafrin once a day for 3-4 months; Introconazole (“Orungal”) 1 time per day, 4-6 weeks, sometimes pulse therapy is prescribed (a short course in a high dose); Fluconazole 1 time per day, 4-6 weeks.

  • Shaving hair every 5-7 days.
  • Daily shampooing with Nizoral, Friderm tab shampoos, Betadine soap.
  • In the morning, lubricate the head with 2% alcohol tincture of iodine, in the evening they apply 10% sulfur-3% salicylic ointment.
  • Antifungal ointments or creams are used, which should be thoroughly rubbed into the scalp 1-2 times a day for 4-6 weeks: isoconazole, bifonazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, ciclopirox. When trichophytosis pretreat the head with 10-20% solution of Dimexidum.
  • With the defeat of the eyelashes, anti-mycotic drugs are used orally, the eyelashes are epilated, 1% aqueous solutions of zelenka or methylene blue are applied to the edge of the eyelid, followed by treatment with antifungal creams.
  • At the stage of recovery, prophylactic powders are used: "Aspersept", "Batrafen", "Iodoform".

Treatment is monitored 1 time in 3 days. To do this, conduct a laboratory study or translucent head fluorescent lamp (with microsporia).

Once every 10 days, control blood and urine tests are performed. When the patient recovers, they are removed from the dispensary account after 1.5 - 2 months, i.e. after regrowth of healthy hair.

Forecast

Thanks to the use of modern drugs, the prognosis is favorable.

Manifestations of dermatophytes are not always noticeable and may resemble dandruff, therefore, adequate diagnosis and effective treatment may be absent for a long time, which leads to the spread of the fungus among people.

Without treatment or with spontaneous recovery during puberty, superficial trichophytosis can make a transition to the chronic form.

There is a "smoldering" infection over the years, which can later cause family transmission of trichophytosis from mothers or grandmothers to children.

Interesting

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