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Decryption of analyzes

Biochemical analysis of blood: decoding in adults, the norm in the table

In the beginning, we will answer the 3 most popular questions and proceed to deciphering the analysis results.

What is a biochemical blood test?

Biochemical blood test is a laboratory examination, which allows you to evaluate the activity of metabolic processes in the body and to identify those or other disorders that indicate certain diseases.

The results of the biochemical analysis of blood make it possible to determine the further program of diagnostic search aimed at identifying or excluding possible pathologies.

Usually, this study is carried out on the recommendation of a doctor, but patients can independently pass this analysis, especially if they suffer from chronic diseases.

Biochemical analysis of blood: decoding in adults, the norm in the table

What does a biochemical blood test show?

Biochemical study of blood allows to draw conclusions of the following nature:

  • Assess liver capacity;
  • Assess the capabilities of the kidneys and their functional reserve;
  • Identify whether cell damage, especially myocardium, is important for early diagnosis of myocardial infarction;
  • Are there electrolyte abnormalities that can affect the normal functioning of important organs;
  • Assess the likelihood of atherosclerosis and related complications;
  • To diagnose diseases associated with metabolic disorders.

How to prepare for the analysis?

To obtain the most reliable results of blood biochemistry, you must follow a number of rules (preparatory stage):

  • On the eve of the study do not eat food in the morning;
  • The day before blood donation, avoid intense physical exertion, which is accompanied by an increase in blood lactate and other metabolites;
  • Eliminate the use of alcoholic beverages;
  • Avoid mental stress, accompanied by an increase in the level of adrenaline with the ensuing consequences.


Biochemical blood test in adults: the norm in the table

The norms of biochemical analysis of blood in adults vary within certain limits, the scope of which depends on the specific laboratory. Therefore, reference values ​​are always indicated in the analysis form. This decoding in adults biochemical blood test and the norm in the table is approximate (exact standards should be clarified with the specialist who conducted the study).

Indicator Lower limit of normal Upper limit of normal unit of measurement
Protein 60 85 g / l
Albumins 35 50 g / l
Globulins 25 35 g / l
Creatinine 50 (women)

64 (men)

100 (women)

110 (men)

µmol / l
Urea (over 60 years old the concentration rises somewhat) 2 7.1 mmol / l
Lipids (concentration increases with age) 0.50 (men)

0.4 (women)

2, 9 (men)

2.5 (women)

mmol / l
Total cholesterol (concentration increases with age) 3 - 3.5 (men)

3 - 4.5 (women)

5 - 6.8 (men)

3 - 7.1 (women)

mmol / l
Total bilirubin 3.3 20.5 µmol / l
Direct bilirubin 0 7,8 µmol / l
ALT 0 31 (women)

41 (men)

U / l
AST 0 31 (women)

37 (men)

U / l
Amylase 25 125 U / l
GGT 0 32 (women)

49 (men)

U / l
Sodium 135 145 mmol / l
Potassium 3.5 five mmol / l
Calcium 2.1 2.55 mmol / l
Chlorine 100 110 mmol / l
Iron 9 (women)

11 (men)

30 (women)

31 (men)

mmol / l
Uric acid 150 (women)

210 (men)

350 (women)

320 (men)

µmol / l
  • Below is a detailed interpretation of the values ​​of the analysis and what it means to deviate upwards and downwards.

Decoding of biochemical blood test for adults

Blood chemistry

Blood electrolytes (ionogram)

The most important diagnostic value among electrolytes in the biochemical analysis of blood is given to potassium, chlorine, sodium, calcium and serum gland. The ionogram is recommended for such conditions as:

  • kidney disease;
  • heart disease, especially manifested by rhythm disturbances;
  • adrenal insufficiency;
  • dehydration;
  • diabetes insipidus ;
  • anemia;
  • infectious diseases;
  • osteoporosis ;
  • convulsions ;
  • urolithiasis, etc.

Also this analysis is shown at reception:

  • diuretics;
  • cardiac glycosides (drugs prescribed to treat heart failure);
  • drugs for the treatment of anemia.

Proteinogram - protein in the biochemical analysis of blood

Protein in the biochemical analysis of blood is a very important indicator. It can be determined as a total protein, and its individual types (fractions) - albumin and globulins. Elevated protein in the analysis usually indicate conditions such as:

  • dehydration;
  • inflammatory process (especially with increased globulins);
  • tumors;
  • traumatic injuries;
  • third trimester of pregnancy;
  • taking androgenic or estrogenic drugs;
  • autoimmune inflammatory processes.

If the protein in the biochemical blood test is lowered - this indicates other pathological conditions:

  • liver failure;
  • impaired absorption and absorption of substances in the intestine with its diseases;
  • renal pathology;
  • pregnancy (first and second trimester).

Uric acid

Uric acid is the main indicator of gout (diseases with lesions of the joints associated with the deposition of crystals of this acid in them). However, an increased level of uric acid may be in other diseases:

  • kidney failure;
  • blood system tumors;
  • hereditary violation of urate exchange.

The final diagnosis of gout is set after an x-ray examination of the joints. In this disease, a characteristic symptom is the formation of tophi - cones on the big toes of the feet or hands.

Low uric acid indicates:

  • lymphogranulomatosis;
  • insufficient intake of proteins from food;
  • Fanconi syndrome (hereditary kidney disease with damage to their tubules).


Urea refers to the products of nitrogen metabolism, which are formed in the liver. The excretion is carried out by the kidneys, and this substance determines the density of urine, because able to attract water. The level of urea depends on factors such as:

  • the preservation of renal function (elevated rates are characteristic of renal failure);
  • the abundance of protein foods in food (if there are many, then the concentration of urea increases);
  • vegetarianism (urea decreases);
  • liver function (in case of its insufficiency, blood urea decreases);
  • age (in children there is a decrease in urea due to increased protein formation);
  • pregnancy (lowering due to a similar mechanism).

Creatinine in a biochemical blood test

Creatinine in the biochemical analysis of blood is an additional indicator of nitrogen metabolism. The formation of this substance occurs in the muscles as a result of the destruction of creatine phosphate. This process is accompanied by the release of energy necessary for muscle contraction.

Creatinine is eliminated from the body by the kidneys - it is filtered in the glomeruli and is not absorbed back into the tubules. Therefore, based on the concentration of creatinine in the blood, conclusions can be drawn about the adequacy of the functioning of the kidneys, namely the glomeruli, which are most often affected by glomerulonephritis.

Thus, an excess of the norm of creatinine, first of all, characterizes the insufficiency of the kidneys. But it can be observed in other diseases:

  • gigantism and its variety - acromegaly (increase in the length of the limbs);
  • muscle compression syndrome;
  • radiation damage;
  • hyperthyroidism (excessive thyroid function).

Also, an increase in creatine concentration in the body may indicate excessive consumption of meat and its products in the human diet. According to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, red meat can be eaten only 2 times a week, not more.

If creatine is lowered below the threshold level, this indicates:

  • muscular dystrophy;
  • fasting, resulting in a decrease in muscle mass;
  • pregnancy (spent on uterine hypertrophy);
  • commitment to vegetarianism.

ALT, ALaT - Alaninaminotransferase

The decoding of ALT in a biochemical blood test is based on the fact that this enzyme is present inside the cells and is released from them when they are destroyed. ALT is involved in the formation of amino acids.

The maximum concentration of this enzyme is determined in the liver and kidneys, lower - in the muscles, heart and pancreas.

Therefore, an increase in the level of ALT indicates such diseases:

  • viral hepatitis;
  • cirrhosis;
  • traumatic injury;
  • liver swelling;
  • myocardial infarction;
  • myocarditis;
  • myodystrophy;
  • rhabdomyolysis (muscle breakdown).

With a pronounced depression of liver function, ALT activity is critically reduced. The determination of GGT in the biochemical analysis of blood helps to confirm the diagnosis of liver damage. This enzyme is also specific for hepatocytes.

Elevated titers of CRP (C-reactive protein) in the biochemical analysis of blood indicate an infectious lesion of the liver (hepatitis of viral nature), helping to establish an exact etiological (causal) diagnosis.

AST, ASaT - Aspartate aminotransferase

AST, in contrast to ALT, is an enzyme more specific for cardiomyocyte damage. Therefore, an increase in AST in a biochemical blood test indicates a myocardial infarction or other damage to the heart. Somewhat less it says about:

  • hepatitis;
  • cholestasis;
  • muscle damage;
  • inflammation of the pancreas .

Lipidogram (cholesterol and fats)

Lipidogram is the determination in the blood of the concentration of fats (lipids) and cholesterol fractions, which determine the degree of atherogenicity. These substances enter the body with food, and are also formed in adipocytes (fat cells) and hepatocytes (liver cells).

The physiological importance of fat and cholesterol is the formation of energy necessary for the flow of all processes in the body. However, elevated levels can lead to the development of atherosclerosis.

When lipid levels are elevated in the analysis, this may indicate the following conditions:

  • hereditary lipidemia;
  • diabetes;
  • heart failure;
  • pancreatitis;
  • obesity;
  • hypothyroid state;
  • pregnancy.

Low lipid levels indicate:

  • lack of nutrition;
  • violation of absorption activity in the intestine;
  • increased thyroid function.

Cholesterol in the biochemical analysis of blood

In determining the level of cholesterol, the total concentration and level in the composition of lipoproteins, both low and high density, are taken into account.

The former are atherogenic, and the latter, on the contrary, have a protective effect on the vessels. The increase in total cholesterol in the blood test is observed when:

  • hereditary hypercholesterolemia;
  • atherosclerosis;
  • liver disease;
  • kidney disease;
  • gout;
  • alcoholism.

Total cholesterol lowered - indicates:

  • exhaustion;
  • impaired absorption;
  • burns;
  • acute infections;
  • heart failure.

Bilirubin in the biochemical analysis of blood

Bilirubin is formed when hemoglobin and myoglobin are destroyed. This process occurs in the liver and in the spleen. There are direct and indirect bilirubin.

Direct linked to glucuronic acid. Indirect bilirubin is free of such a bond, therefore it is insoluble in water. It is formed initially from hemoglobin and myoglobin and is capable of destroying cell membranes, since it is well dissolved in fats.

This type of bilirubin has a toxic effect on the cells if its concentration exceeds permissible values. Normally, it must enter the liver, where it combines with glucuronic acid and loses its toxic properties. Next, bound bilirubin enters the intestine with bile and is excreted (both with urine and rock).

An increase in total bilirubin in the blood leads to the appearance of externally visible jaundice and indicates liver damage, destruction of red blood cells, poisoning, tumors, hereditary hyperbilirubinemia, gallstone disease, etc.

An increased level of direct bilirubin allows determining the direct involvement of the liver in the pathological process and determining the level of damage (above the liver, below it, or directly of this organ). This indicates diseases such as:

  • viral hepatitis;
  • toxic hepatitis;
  • hepatosis of pregnancy;
  • Rotor syndrome (hereditary violation of bilirubin metabolism);
  • pathology with compression of the bile ducts.


There are two fractions of amylase:

  • salivary - formed in the salivary glands;
  • pancreatic - synthesized in the pancreas.

The removal of the enzyme is carried out by the kidneys. In this case, it is traditionally called diastase, although it is one and the same substance.

Both an increase in the level of amylase and its decrease are of diagnostic value. An increased level of amylase is observed in such diseases as:

  • pancreatitis;
  • parotitis (in people - mumps);
  • diabetes and others.

Lower levels are usually associated with pancreatic insufficiency leading to impaired digestion, or with cystic fibrosis .

2017-09-14 07:10:46
increased ferritin reason
2017-12-01 05:14:27
ALT -190 EDL, AST -129 EDL, bilirubin = 20 μmoll. Is it liver cancer?
2017-12-07 13:31:32
Hello Tatiana. Liver cancer is not exposed to one analysis. You need to refer to a gastroenterologist with these results, but before that pass an ultrasound of the liver and abdominal organs.

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