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Basalioma: photo, stages and treatment, basal cell carcinoma of the face and nose

What it is?

The most common type among oncological skin pathologies is basal cell carcinoma (basal cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma). Tumor neoplasm originates in the germ (basal) layer of the skin epithelium. Slow growth and extremely rare metastasis are characteristic of basal cell carcinoma.

Many "medical luminaries" refer to such a tumor process as intermediate localized (semi-malignant) neoplasms.

Basal cell carcinoma is characterized by persistent relapsing course, invasion of almost all layers of the skin, including deep ones, causing functional and cosmetic defects in superficial areas of the body. People of different ages are susceptible to the disease, but according to statistics, every 4th fair-skinned elderly person (up to 50 and older), sensitive to solar exposure, is at risk.

Basalioma photo 1

Basalioma photo 1

Ionizing factor and solar exposure are not the only precipitating factors for the development of basal cell carcinoma. It can be triggered by the development of frequent injury to skin areas or exposure to harmful chemicals, in particular, arsenic, hydrocarbons or its derivatives. The origin of the tumor occurs in the deeper layers of the epidermis. From this moment its slow germination begins to the surface.

Content

Signs of basal cell carcinoma (skin cancer) in humans

Signs of basal cell carcinoma

Manifestation of skin cancer (basalioma) with various clinical forms.

  • Ulcus rodens - nodular ulcers. The usual places of localization are the inner surface in the corners of the eye, the skin surface of the eyelids, in the folds at the base of the nose. Appears above the skin in the form of pinkish, or red dense nodular formation with a shiny surface. A gradual increase in the site is accompanied by ulceration, the bottom of the ulcer is covered with greasy bloom. Signs of telangiectisia (vascular enlargements) and the appearance of a crust surrounded by a “pearl” dense roller are characteristic of the surface.
  • Perforated basalioma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma of the face with signs of rapid infiltration. In appearance it is not much different from the previous form.
  • Warty, exophytic, papillary - appear above the skin surface in dense, rounded nodules resembling cauliflower. Infiltration is not inclined.
  • Krupnouzelkovoy nodulyarnoy - different single localization of nodular formation. Signs of telangiectisia are clearly visible on the surface.
  • Pigmented basal cell carcinoma, in appearance very similar to melanoma. The difference is the dark internal pigmentation of the node and the surrounding "pearl" roller.
  • Atrophic cicatricial form, having the form of flat ulcerations, surrounded by a dense side of "pearl" color. Characterized by the growth of erosion spots at the time of scarring in its center.
  • Sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma prone to scarring and ulceration processes. At the beginning of the process, it manifests itself in small dense knots, which quickly turn into dense flat spots with vascular translucency.
  • Pegethoid superficial tumor. Characterized by the manifestation of many flat tumors, reaching large sizes. Plaques with raised edges do not rise above the skin, they appear with all shades of scarlet. Often appear accompanied by various diffuse processes - costal anomalies or the development of cysts in the mandibular zone.
  • Turbulent basalioma affecting the scalp. Violet-pink tumor "sits" on a fairly wide "in diameter 10 cm) basis. It develops for a long time. It features a benign clinical picture.

Stages of basal cell carcinoma - the beginning and development

Stages of basal cell carcinoma photo

stages of development of basal cell carcinoma, photo

The classification of basal cell carcinoma by stages is based on the clinical picture, taking into account the characteristics - the area of ​​the lesion, the depth of germination in the adjacent tissues and signs of their destruction, without signs of involvement of the lymph system nodes in the process. According to such indications, four stages of the lesion are determined, which are caused by the appearance of tumors in the form of tumors or ulcers.

  1. The initial stage of basal cell carcinoma (first) includes neoplasms not exceeding 2 cm. Localization is limited, without germination in adjacent tissues.
  2. The second stage includes nodular tumors of more than 2 cm. With signs of germination in all skin layers, without capturing fatty tissue.
  3. The third stage is characterized by a significant size of the neoplasm (up to 3 cm and more), germinating all tissue structures, up to the bone.
  4. The fourth stage of basal cell carcinoma of the skin includes tumors germinating and affecting the bone structure or cartilage tissue (see photo).

Signs of the initial stage of basal cell carcinoma, photo

initial stage of basal cell carcinoma photo

photo of the initial stage of basal cell carcinoma

For a tumor, the location in various areas of the facial and cervical area is typical. Localization of various forms of basal cell carcinoma on the skin of the nose is also not uncommon. It manifests itself as small painless nodules of skin color, in the form of ordinary acne, usually on the forehead or in the folds near the wings of the nose.

In the initial stage, the basaliomas have the form of small pearl nodules, which, after a while, tend to get wet. A crust forms on their surface through which the ulcerated surface is visible.

The process is not accompanied by pain and discomfort. Such pearl nodules are able to manifest themselves as a whole "company" and unite into one, forming an angiitis spot (plaque) with a lobed surface.

Characteristically, the formation on the plaque surface of telangiectasis signs (small capillary stains). Soon, a bubble fringing begins to form around the neoplasm, subsequently turning into a dense edging in the form of a roller, which is a characteristic difference of basal cell carcinoma. When stretching the skin at the site of formation, the red ring of the inflammatory process can be clearly seen.

initial stage of basal cell carcinoma photo

Tissue disintegration on the surface of the formation causes an ulcerative or erosive process. When removing crusts covering an ulcer or erosion, a crater-shaped depression or uneven bottom is exposed. They partially scar, become crusted, but continue to grow slowly, without showing any discomfort or pain until a certain time.

Pain, partial tissue paresis, manifested by a loss of tissue sensitivity, causes deep growth of the neoplasm, provoking the destruction or squeezing of the cellular structure of nerve tissues.

Due to the slow growth of basal cell carcinoma in the initial period, it is possible in the first two years, since the first symptoms, to detect the disease in almost 80% of the patients.

  • Early diagnosis and timely removal of basal cell carcinoma, in 98% of cases give a good cosmetic result and a cure.

Clinic of the late period

Stage 4 basal cell carcinoma photo In the late period of its development, a tumor of carcinoma grows into deep skin layers, forming a crater-like depression. Ulcerations acquire a dense structure and are no longer shifted upon inspection. The bottom of the crater becomes fatty and shining, the ulcer is surrounded by clearly visible blood vessels.

Any of the tumor forms of basal cell carcinoma is characterized by slow development, which can last for months and years. However, the characteristic feature of such formations is the growth not in area, but in depth, forming a characteristic funnel.

Therefore, in the later stages of the disease in patients after the treatment of education, there remain impressive defects that are difficult to correct.

  • In more than half of these patients, after the removal of basal cell carcinoma its recurrences are noted.

What is dangerous basalioma, whether to remove it?

A prolonged tumor process causes its germination to the very depths of the body, damaging and destroying soft tissues, the structure of bones and cartilage. Basal cell carcinoma is characterized by its cellular growth along the natural course of nerve branches, among the tissue layers and the surface of the periosteum.

Formations that were not removed at the time are subsequently not limited to tissue destruction.

Basal cell carcinoma (photo) is able to deform and disfigure the ears and nose, destroying their bone structure and cartilage, and exacerbating the situation with a purulent process is capable of any joined infection. A tumor may:

  • hit the mucous membrane in the nasal cavity;
  • go into the mouth;
  • hit and destroy the bones of the skull;
  • located in the orbit of the eye;
  • lead to blindness and hearing loss.

Intracranial (intracranial) implantation of a tumor through the promotion of natural openings and cavities causes particular danger.

In this case, brain damage and death are inevitable. Contrary to the fact that basalioma is referred to as non-metastatic tumors, more than two hundred cases of basaliomas with metastases are known and described.

Treatment of basal cell carcinoma - removal and preparations

Treatment of basal cell carcinoma

The diagnostic criterion for examining tumors of basal cell carcinoma are histological and cytological indicators with scrapings, smears, or biopsy specimens from the tumor zone.

In differential diagnosis, a highly informative dermatoscopy technique is used, identifying basal cell carcinoma by morphological features.

An important diagnostic method that helps in the correct choice of treatment tactics - therapeutic or surgical intervention, is ultrasound examination. Ultrasound specifies the extent of the lesion, its localization and characterization of the tumor process.

It is on such data that the choice of medical techniques is based, including:

Лекарственную терапию базалиомы кожи с использованием местной химиотерапии цитостатическими препаратами типа «Циклофосфамида» и аппликационного лечения «Метотрексатом» или «Фторурацилом». 1) Drug therapy of skin basalioma using local chemotherapy with cytotoxic drugs such as "Cyclophosphamide" and application treatment with Methotrexate or Fluorouracil.

Хирургическое удаление базалиомы, захватывая от одного до двух сантиметров, прилегающих к опухоли тканей. 2) Surgical removal of basal cell carcinoma, capturing from one to two centimeters adjacent to the tumor tissue. Cartilage and bone tissues are subject to resection if they are involved in the process.

This method is not used for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma on the face, since extensive intervention is very difficult to correct with plastic. It is used in operations to remove a tumor on parts of the body, including the limbs.

Contraindications are - old age, complex background pathology, the inability to use anesthesia.

Криодеструкцию – удаление базалиомы кожи с помощью жидкого азота. 3) Cryodestruction - removal of skin basal cell carcinoma using liquid nitrogen. The low nitrogen temperature has a damaging effect on the tumor tissue. This technique is used to remove small formations, located mainly on the hands or feet.

Cryodestruction is not used to remove large basalis, with deep infiltration and neoplasms located on the face.

Лучевую терапию применяют в качестве лечения базалиомы, как самостоятельную методику, и как возможное сочетание с другим лечением. 4) Radiation therapy is used as a treatment for basal cell carcinoma, as an independent technique, and as a possible combination with another treatment. It is used to remove surface formations (with a diameter of not more than 5 cm) in the early period of development with localization in any area of ​​the face. Radiation technique is acceptable for patients in age and with advanced forms of the disease. Perhaps complex, mixed treatment with drug therapy.

Удаление неодимовым и углекислым лазером небольших образований. 5) Removal of small formations by neodymium and carbon dioxide. The effectiveness of the method is achieved in 85%.

Фотодинамическую терапию базалиомы, обусловленную влиянием лазерного излучения на опухолевый процесс с введенным пациенту фотосенсибилизатором. 6) Photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinoma due to the effect of laser radiation on the tumor process with a photosensitizer administered to the patient.

The effect of a laser on a sensitizer, accumulated by tumor cells, causes necrosis of its tissues and death of cancer cells without harming the connective tissues. This is the most popular and effective method of removing primary and recurrent tumors, especially on the face.

The prognosis of the treatment of basal cell carcinoma, despite frequent relapses, is generally favorable. A complete cure is achieved in almost 8 out of 10 patients. And the local and unreleased forms of the disease can be cured completely, with timely diagnosis.

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