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Decryption of analyzes

Bacteria in the urine: causes, effects and treatment

Normal urine does not contain bacteria. They can appear when the urinary organs are affected by a bacterial infection, for example, with pyelonephritis. About all factors provoking bacteriuria and what to do if bacteria are found in the urine, read on.

How can bacteria get into the urine?

In the urine, bacteria penetrate the pathologies of the kidneys, the filtering ability of which is reduced. Bacteriuria is diagnosed if the bacteria in the urine are more than 105 CFU per 1 ml, they can get into it in the following ways:

  1. Ascending when pathogens enter the urinary organs through the urethra. This happens more often in women, as they have a short urethra. The ingress of bacteria is also likely not only in diseases of the genital organs, lack of hygiene, but also in urethroscopy, cystoscopy and other instrumental procedures.
  2. Descending - with infection in the kidneys and bladder.
  3. Hematogenous - microorganisms penetrate with blood from more distant, inflamed foci.
  4. Lymphogenous - with lymphatic fluid from nearby infected organs.

Bacteriuria is of two types - true and false. In the first case, the pathogens initially live and multiply in the urine and urinary organs, in the second they get there from other organs.

Bacteria in urine

Signs of a large number of bacteria in the urine can be:

  • lower abdominal pain;
  • frequent urination;
  • unpleasant smell of urine, sometimes mucous or bloody impurities in it;
  • burning and soreness when urinating;
  • urine may become whitish or turbid.

An increase in body temperature is not always observed and may occur in infectious diseases of the kidneys. Nausea, vomiting, back pain can be added here.

For the detection of bacteria using microscopic examination of the urine, which is always shown in cases of suspected infectious-inflammatory pathology of the urogenital system.

Content

Causes of bacteria in urine analysis

Causes of bacteria in urine analysis

What do bacteria in urine mean? Bacteriuria indicates the presence of inflammation in the urinary or genital organs - prostatitis, cystitis , vesiculitis, pyelonephritis , urethritis .

It can also be a consequence of residual effects after the transfer of STDs ( chlamydia , ureaplasmosis , trichomoniasis, and others).

Provocative factors:

  • neglect of intimate hygiene rules;
  • diabetes;
  • chronic diseases of the genitourinary system;
  • weakening of the immune system (in pregnant women, with inflammatory diseases in children);
  • promiscuous sex life.

In most cases, if there are bacteria in the urine, this means that an infectious-inflammatory process takes place. . However, microorganisms can get into urine, if it is improperly collected . Before collecting urine, it is necessary to thoroughly wash the external genitalia, and the container must be sterile clean.

From the moment of collection to the delivery of urine to the clinic should not take more than 2 hours.

More often in the urine detect such bacteria:

  • E. coli - these Gram-negative microorganisms live in the intestines and during bowel movements can get to the genitals, and then into the urethra and higher - into the bladder and kidneys. Rapidly multiplying, they provoke pyelonephritis, urethritis or cystitis.
  • Klebsiella pneumonia - these microbes are found in the urine of children or the elderly with weakened immunity and diseases of the bronchi, lungs, or other organs. For example, they can affect the skin, digestive system, larynx.
  • Fecal enterococcus - these bacteria are found in the gastrointestinal tract of each person, participating in the digestion of food. In the urethra and bladder can get during defecation, and then actively multiply. As a result, inflammation develops, possibly blood infection, open injuries of the mucous membrane and skin, organs of the small pelvis.
  • Lactobacilli are normally present in the intestine, vagina and urogenital system, therapeutic measures require their uncontrolled reproduction.
  • Bacteria of the genus Proteus - are considered the norm for the digestive tract, provoke inflammation when inhaled. Urine becomes dark and gets a fetid odor.

With a small number of bacteria in the urine of an adult and the absence of any diseases, therapy is not prescribed, since the microflora returns to normal itself. Pregnant women, children and the elderly need special attention in such cases, especially with reduced immunity.

Identified bacteriuria (104 CFU / ml or more) requires a more thorough examination and treatment of the problem that led to the entry of microorganisms into the urine.

Elevated bacteria and leukocytes in the urine

Bacteria and leukocytes in the urine are present in such diseases:

  • inflammation of the kidneys - pyelonephritis;
  • vasculitis is an inflammation of the blood vessels associated with immune disorders;
  • cystitis - an inflammatory lesion of the bladder;
  • nephrosclerosis, when the renal parenchyma is replaced by connective tissue due to diseases of the urinary system and blood vessels;
  • urethritis - an infectious-inflammatory lesion of the urethra;
  • interstitial nephritis, when kidney tubules and connective tissue elements are inflamed;
  • atheroembolism of renal arteries;
  • vesiculitis - inflammation of the seminal vesicles.

Bacteria with mucus in the urine

Mucus and bacteria in the urine appear simultaneously with urolithiasis, inflammatory pathologies of the kidneys, bladder or ureters, and nephritis.

An insignificant amount of mucus can be found in the urine when improperly prepared for the test, when epithelial cells from the mucous membrane of the external genital organs enter the urine.

Protein and bacteria in urine

If mucus appears in the urine during inflammation of any of the urinary system, then the protein enters the urine precisely in violation of the filtering ability of the kidneys.

Normally, protein compounds are not excreted as excess water and urea. Bacterial infections and inflammation damage the kidney tissue, forming areas that allow large protein molecules to pass through. As a result, bacteria and protein in the urine are present simultaneously.

The cause of this can be pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis, tuberculosis or kidney cancer.

Causes of bacteria in the urine during pregnancy

Causes of bacteria in the urine during pregnancy

Bacteriuria can be detected in a pregnant woman, the reasons for this may be as follows:

  • inflammatory diseases of the urogenital system;
  • hormonal changes;
  • impaired kidney function due to the pressure of the growing uterus;
  • congestion of urine in the bladder.

If bacteria are detected in the urine during pregnancy, it is important to treat it, since an infectious kidney damage is potentially dangerous - it can provoke premature birth.

Bacteria in the urine of a child

In children, bacteriuria is less common than in adults. In childhood, bacteria can appear in the urine due to insufficient hygiene of the intimate area, trauma to the urogenital organs, after bathing in a dirty pond. Common pathological causes of bacteria in the urine of a child:

  • Pyelonephritis, the symptoms of which are abdominal and lower back pain, fever, diarrhea and vomiting. Infants also show anxiety and refusal to feed.
  • Urethritis and cystitis, in which there is frequent urination at night, urinary incontinence, temperature up to 38 ° C, pain in the lower abdomen, general weakness, burning and pain when urinating.

These diseases can develop as a result of hypothermia, infection in the urinary tract, as well as congenital abnormalities of the organs of the urinary and reproductive systems.

If you detect any signs of bacteriuria (abdominal pain, impurities in the urine and a change in its color, symptoms of pyelonephritis and other diseases mentioned above), self-treatment should be excluded. Be sure to pass the examination in the clinic.

Bacteria in the urine - what to treat and what to do?

Tactics of treatment depends on the cause of bacteriuria, and is always aimed at eliminating the source of a bacterial infection and facilitating urination. The doctor may prescribe antibiotics, sulfonamides, drugs to strengthen the immune system, the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases.

Before choosing the means of therapy, the sensitivity of microorganisms found in urine to certain medicines is studied.

In order to prevent bacteriuria, it is important to maintain good personal hygiene, avoid hypothermia, maintain a healthy lifestyle, strengthen the immune system, take vitamins and follow a balanced diet.

It is necessary as soon as possible to begin the treatment of pathologies of the urogenital area and other systems and organs.

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