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Autoimmune thyroiditis of the thyroid gland: symptoms and treatment, endonorm

What it is?

AIT, an autoimmune thyroiditis of the thyroid gland, is one of the forms of organ-specific pathologies of autoimmune genesis, characterized by inflammatory processes in the thyroid gland causing lymphoid infiltration and destruction of the follicular tissues of the organ.

The disease has a century of history and was first described by a Japanese surgeon Hashimoto. Subsequently, the pathology began to be called by his name -
“Goiter or Hashimoto thyroiditis”.

Mostly women of mature age (45-60 years) are susceptible to the disease, which is caused by X-chromosomal disorder and estrogenic influence on the lymphoid system cells involved in the mechanism of the immune response. In some cases, it affects young people and children. More than 20% of autoimmune thyroiditis occurs in pregnant women.

About the causes and development

Autoimmune thyroiditis

The genesis of AIT is caused by phagocytic aggression of immunity to the tissues of the thyroid gland, perceiving them as an alien “agent” and producing antibodies to them. This fact causes the autoimmune processes of inflammation and destruction of the organ cells, including those producing hormones.

This explains the development of autoimmune thyroiditis, hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis, when there is a decrease or increase in hormonal synthesis. In addition, autoimmune inflammatory processes in the tissues of the thyroid gland give impetus to the development of cystic and nodular neoplasms in them.

Autoimmune thyroiditis belongs to the section of genetically inherited diseases, which is often confirmed by the presence of pathology in relatives close to the patient. But genetic predisposition is not the only cause of AIT. To trigger phagocytic failure and hormonal dysfunction can:

  • frequent viral and bacterial pathologies;
  • chronic ENT infections;
  • harmful environmental factors that trigger an increase in immune activity;
  • excessive exposure to radiation and UV radiation;
  • prolonged uncontrolled intake of hormones and iodine-containing drugs;
  • iodine deficiency in the body;
  • periods of hormonal changes;
  • immune failure and predisposition to allergies
  • thyroid surgery and injury;
  • nerve pathology and stress.

Such patients are not rarely accompanied by other autoimmune diseases - diffuse processes in the thyroid gland (Basedow's disease), the development of asthenic bulbar paralysis (myasthenia), Graves endocrine ophthalmopathy, damage to the lacrimal and salivary glands due to the “dry” syndrome, Shagren, collagenosis (connective tissue pathology), growths of lymphoid cells (lymphoid hypophysitis).

Content

Symptoms of autoimmune thyroiditis in the forms

Symptoms of autoimmune thyroiditis

AIT has various variations, the genesis of all its types has the same nature of development, according to the type of aseptic inflammatory process, which gradually takes the form of transient (transient) hypothyroidism. Appears:

  1. Autoimmune chronic thyroiditis is a consequence of immune phagocytic aggression leading to destructive changes in the thyroid gland and causing the development of hypothyroidism.
  2. Postpartum thyroiditis, developing as a result of excessive activity of phagocytic protection during pregnancy. In pregnant women predisposed to endocrine disorders, this type of pathology can later be transformed into a chronic autoimmune thyroiditis.
  3. The type of painless thyroiditis (silent) is similar to the manifestation of postpartum tereoiditis, but the genesis is not associated with pregnancy.
  4. The cytokine-induced type of the disease develops in patients who have been treated for a long time with “Interferon”, for blood diseases and for hepatitis “C”.

Clinical signs of disorders in the thyroid gland are determined by the form of the course of AIT:

  • Hypertrophic, characterized by a uniform increase in the entire thyroid gland or with signs of nodular formations. The functions of the gland are not disturbed, or slightly reduced. In the initial period, thyrotoxicosis is possible. The progression of the autoimmune process leads to a decrease in function, deterioration and the development of hypothyroidism.
  • Atrophic, the most severe form of autoimmune thyroiditis, triggered by an extensive process of destruction of the follicular thyroid cells, drastically reducing its function.

Symptoms of thyroid autoimmune thyroiditis

Symptoms of thyroid autoimmune thyroiditis

The AIT clinic is distinguished by a four-phase course of the disease: euthyroid, subclinical, thyrotoxic and hypothyroid, which, replacing each other, can last for years.

When autoimmune tereoiditis is characterized by a slow development of symptoms. Often the pathological process may be asymptomatic or with mild symptoms, which is characteristic of the euthyroid and subclinical phase. Thyroid cells are affected slightly and special functional disorders of the organ are not observed. Such a course of the disease can last for decades.

Only slight discomfort can be felt in the thyroid zone, in the form of a lump pressing on the throat, slight fatigue and weakness, pain in the joints is noted.

The main symptom of autoimmune thyroiditis is the growth of colloid goiter. The remaining signs are a reflection of the violation of the process of hormonal synthesis, its reduction or increase - hypothyroidism, or hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis). Clinic of thyrotoxicosis is usually observed in the first few years of the development of pathology.

With the development of atrophic processes in the tissues of the thyroid gland, there is a temporary transient character in the etioreoid phase, with subsequent transition to the hypothyroidism phase.

A steady increase in the hormonal level (with thyrotoxicosis) is manifested:

  • small subfebrile body;
  • cardiac arrhythmia and hyperhidrosis;
  • self-dyspnea, without the influence of stress;
  • trembling in limbs and weight loss;
  • insomnia (insomnia) and neurosis (hysteria, irritability).

The hypothyroid phase of AIT is called the final one, due to the cellular destruction of the majority of the thyroid gland and insufficient hormonal synthesis, which remain unaffected by the cells. Symptoms are typical for a decrease in the hormonal level (hypothyroidism):

  • chronic fatigue;
  • significant weight gain;
  • hypothermia (low temperature) and swelling;
  • rough features;
  • defects of diction, slowness and drowsiness;
  • failures in the menstrual cycle, signs of libido and infertility.

Treatment of autoimmune thyroiditis, drugs

The disease is diagnosed by palpation and ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland. Deviations of a serious nature are expressed by difficulty in swallowing and breathing caused by compression of adjacent organs. In blood counts, changes due to inflammatory reactions in thyroid tissue are noted. Immunogram indicators help determine increased or decreased hormone levels. The diagnostic criterion is an increased level and aggression of antibodies in the thyroid gland - AT-TPO.

Most of the symptoms are characteristic of various pathological processes that do not intersect with AIT, therefore, a corresponding differential diagnosis is carried out.

A clear treatment regimen of autoimmune tereoiditis does not exist. The therapeutic effect is aimed at stopping the symptoms of the disease depending on the phase of the course - thyrotoxic or hypothyroid. Includes:

  1. Hormone replacement therapy.
  2. Therapy suppressing the hormonal function of the thyroid gland.
  3. With a strong increase in the body - surgery.

When AIT with signs of hypothyroidism, it is prescribed conservative therapy with Levothyroxine, Mercazole, Tiamazole, and Alfa-adrenoblockers adrenolytic drugs, aimed at hormonal regulation.

If the process has an acute course, glucocorticosteroid drugs are added - for example, Prednisolone. To reduce the aggression of antibodies to thyroid tissues, anti-inflammatory nonsteroid drugs are prescribed - Voltaren, Indomethacin, and others.

AIT - Endonorm treatment

The therapeutic complex includes the treatment of autoimmune thyroiditis "Endonorm". It is prescribed a drug to reduce the attack of antibodies and replenish the macro and microelements of the thyroid tissue. Homeopathic supplements that are part of the drug, help restore the adrenal glands and glands of the reproductive system, affected by hormonal imbalance.

Also used drugs adaptogens that help the body to adapt to the harmful effects, vitamin complexes and immunomodulatory therapy.

The worst thing that can be expected from autoimmune thyroiditis is the development of autoimmune diffuse processes in various organs and systems of the body, indicating a profound damage to the endocrine system.

Possible consequences

The consequences of autoimmune thyroiditis are rare and in those cases where there has not been adequate treatment.

  • Among adult patients, mental disorders caused by a depressive syndrome may progress. Manifest syndrome decline and underdevelopment of intelligence. The development of heart and vascular diseases.
  • In childhood, manifest underdevelopment of the organs of the reproductive system, mental and mental retardation, even idiocy and pituitary nanism (dwarfism).
  • The consequences of autoimmune thyroiditis in pregnant women can result in signs of gestosis, placental insufficiency and early termination of pregnancy.

Autoimmune thyroiditis cannot be cured completely. The patient will have to depend for life on maintenance therapy. Timely diagnosis and the right treatment will ensure a full life and save you from possible complications. Will keep childbearing functions and physical activity, will help to achieve stable and long-term remission for many years.

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